[Networking]: part one

Uyumunsi reka turebere hamwe icyo aya magambo(Network,Nat,DHCP,Ports) ashatse

kuvuga ndakeka atarubwambere waba uyabonyeho.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese Network Niki?!?

Network muburyo busanzwe ushobora kuvuga uti nibintu byinshi bifite aho bihuriye ibyo nibyo.ariko tugiye muri computer science Network ni imashini ninshi nibindi bikoresho birihamwe kugirango bihanahane amakuru.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese nibiki ngomba kuba mfite ngo nkore network nziza.

Ugomba kuba ufite ibi bikurikira:

1.Imashini(computers)

2.wires(Ethernet cables) cyangwa wireless

3.IP address nibindi…..

Nkoko twabibonye munkuru Ivugango ese IP address Niki?!? Hari ubwoko bubiri bwa IP address (Private IP na Public IP ) .

Aha ushobora kwibaza uti ese Private IP zitandukaniyehe na Public IP.?!

Private IP ni IP address zikoreshwa nkigihe urimo ukora network yo  murugo kw’ishuri nahandi dukoresha Private IP address iyo dukora network zacu bivuzeko Private IP zishobora gusa ushobora gukoresha IP runaka nkurugero(192.168.0.4) kuri mudasobwa yawe yomurugo wajya gusura nincuti ugasanga na we yakoresheje IP address nkiyo wakoresheje kuri mudasobwa yawe.

Icyitonderwa nubwo public IP address zishobora gusa ntibivuzeko wakoresha IP address imwe kuri mudasobwa ebyiri ziri muri network imwe.

Ese ubundi dukenera private IP ryari:public IP zikenerwa iyo dukora network yacu tutagiye gukorsha murandasi.

Reka dukomereze kuri Public IP address:

Public IP Niki?!?

Public IP ni address ifatwa nigikoresho cyose gikoresha murandasi urugero( mudasobwa,smartphone,frigo,tevision nibindi byinshi) ikindi ugomba kumenya public IP zo ntizijya zisa public IP uhabwa ntiba isa niyundi iba Ari imwe kuri buri gikoresho.

 

Tuvuye kuri IP address reka tujye kuri network .

Hari ubwoko  bwinshi bwa network Kandi ntibipfa koroha kumenya kuzitandukanya ariko uyu munsi turarebera hamwe ubwoko bumwe nabumwe bukunzwe gukoresha .

Gutandukanya network ubundi bigendera kungano yamudasobwa ikoresha,ubuso irimo,nibindi.

 

Zimwe mungero za network tugendeye kungano ya zamudasobwa nukuvuga ubwinshi naho ziba ziri (geographic  area)

1.Personal area network(PAN)

2.Local Area Network( LAN)

3.Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)

4.Wide Area Network (WAN)

Reka dutangire tureba murimake izi network uko zikora:

1.Personal Area Network (PAN)

PAN nubwoko bwanetwork buba buri munyubako yumuntu runaka,umushinga ,cyangwa urugo .ishobora kuba iri mubiro cyangwa aho utuye.

PAN ubundi iba igizwe nimashini imwe cyangwa nyinshi,telephone, nibindi bikoresho…

Ubu bwoko bwa network ushatse wanabwita Home Area Network .

Ago bahera bayisanisha na HAN nukuberako ushobora kuba ufite imashini yawe imwe na modem ukaba wasangiza abandi bo murugo Bose network icyo gihe network iba irigucungwa numuntu umwe nukuvuga mudasobwa yawe ariko irigukoreshwa nibikoresho byinshi.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese iyi network yadufasha iki?!

Ibyo iyi network yadufasha nibyinshi harimo:

Mugihe waruri mucyumba kitarimo printer kandi ushaka guprintinga ushobora kohereza iyo document mucyumba korimo printer ubundi ukagaprintinga.

 

Ushobora gukura amafoto warufite kuri telephone yawe ukayashyira kuri mudasobwa.

 

Ushobora kureba film online ninindi…

 

2.Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN iba igizwe namudasobwa ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi ahantu hamwe ishobora kuba Ari ibiro birimunyubako ahantu .LAN ikoreshwa mugu sharing resources nka printers nibindi.

LAN ubundi kugira ibeho cyangwa ikore ntibisaba ibikoresho bihenze hasabwa imashini ,Ethernet cables ,hubs cyangwa switches akenshi abantu bakunze gukoresha Ethernet cables kuberaumuvuduko numutekano wayo ariko bidakuyeho ko hari nabakoresha wireless bakora LAN.

LAN yubakwa ahantu kugirango abantu barimurako gace babashe guhanahana amakuru ,documents,nogukugira ibikoresho bimwe nabimwe bahuriyeho nka printers nibindi …… Ariko ntibarenga aho hantu .

Urumva nibintu byoroshye ariko ntibivuzeko umuntu umwe nava nko muri iyo office akajya hanze akaba afite document ashaka gu printing bizakunda ?!oya ntabwo bizakunda kuberako azaba yagiye inyuma ya network mwakoze.

 

  1. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MAN iba igizwe namudasobwa nyinshi zishobor kuba zikwirakwiye umugi wose,College cyangwa Campus .

MAN iba arinini kuri LAN tuziko yo iba itarenga inyubako imwe ariko MAN yo tugendeye kuri configuration ishobora kugera ahantu hangana nokuva kuri 1km-10 km .MAN ikaba ikoreshwa muguhuza am a LANs kugira akore network mini.

Iyo iyi network yakoreshejwe muri campus ifata izina campus area network (CAN)

 

4.Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN yo ifata ahantu hanini cyane nkurugero ishobora gukwira igihugu cyose cyangwa isi yose.

WAN ishobora kuba igizwe nutu network duto ,nka LANs na MANs ubundi murandasi nirwo rugero ruzwi rwa WAN.

 

PAN na LANs izi nizo bita private networks kuvugako guhererekanya amakuru kuba murizi

network ntibisabako bigera kuri murandasi biguma biri private .

 

Reka turekere aha ubutaha muri networking part2 tuzarebera hamwe ibi bikurikira(DHCP,NAT,TCP/IP).

 

Hagize ikosa ubona munkuru iyo ariyo yose wadukosora muri comment box tukarihindura bigafasha nabandi basomyi murakoze!!!?

 

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