[Networking]: Igice cyakabiri

Ubwo duherukanye  twarebeye hamwe network icyo aricyo nubwoko bwazo mugice cyambere kanda  hano nimba urebe ibyo twarebeye hamwe mugice cyambere .

Uyumunsi tugiye kurebera hamwe (DHCP,NAT,TCP/IP)

 

Reka dutangirire kuri DHCP ushobora kuba uhura niri jambo mugihe urimo ukoresha mudasobwa  cyangwa telephone yawe kenshi na kenshi igihe usoma inkuru  cyangwa ibitabo bijyanye na Networking.

Bigahita bigutera kwibaza uti .

Ese DHCP Niki?

DHCP mumagambo arambuye ni Dynamic Host Control Protocol DHCP akaba ari Protocol itanga IP address dynamically ugenekereje nukuvugako itanga ama IP address ahindagurika mugihe runaka,bivuzeko mugihe urimo gukoresha mudasobwa yawe iri kuri Network runaka ikoresha DHCP icyo gihe utagira IP address imwe cyangwa ihoraho ahubwo ihora ihinduka burigihe.

Akenshi nakenshi ayo ma IP address atangwa kuri Local Area Network.Wibukeko tuvuga kuri IP address twabonyeko dukoresha private IP iyo dukora Network(LAN) aha nukuvugako kandi ko buri gikoresho nka mudasobwa,smartphone nibindi iyo gishyizwe kuri iyo network  kigomba gusaba IP address yogukoresha .icyo gikoresho (device ) cyohereza ubusabe kuri DHCP server DHCP server nayo  igatanga IP address kuricyo gikoresho mugihe runaka aricyo bita “lease time”..

Lease Time Niki??. Lease Time nigihe igikoresho cyashyizwe kuri Network runaka kizamara gikoresha IP address Cyahawe, Icyo gihe (Lease Time) kigenwa na DHCP server.

Kandi menyako burigihe ushyize mudasobwa yawe kuri Network ikoresha DHCP Server uzahita ubona IP address ako kanya.

Iyo IP address uhabwa icyo igenda ihinduka burigihe bitewe na configuration za DHCP server Lease Time,Ayo ma IP Address agenda ahinduka  aba ari  muri range imwe ariko ahinduka bitewe na Lease Time DHCP Server Itanga urugero ugishyira mudasobwa yawe  kuri Network mudasobwa ihita ihabwa IP address ako kanya .

Burigihe ushyize mudasobwa yawe cyangwa ikindi gikoresho cyose kuri LAN . ubona IP Address

zihindagurika, Ariko zigomba kuba ziri muri Range imwe .(192.168.0.1 – 192.168.255.255) nukuvugako buri gikoresho uzashyira kuri iyi Network uzabona IP Adress iri hagati yizo tubonye harugura.

 

 

 

Reka dukomereze kuri NAT!!!

Ese NAT Niki?!?!

NAT mumagambo arambuye ni Network Address Translation ni protocol ihindura internal IP address nukuvuga ihindura private IP address mo public IP address .ibuka ibyo twabonye mugice cyambere twabonyeko private IP address zikoreshwa kuri Network ya LAN zidashobora kujya kuri murandasi kuko Private IP address aba ari rusange nukuvugako ushobora gukoresha IP Address muri Network yawe wanagera kuri mugenzi wawe ugasanga mufite IP Address zisa bitandukanye no kuri Public IP Address nkuko twabibonye mugice cyambere Public IP igomba kuba ari imwe rukumbi idasa nindi aho akaba ariho  itandukanira na private IP ziba zisa bitewe naho iyo network iri!;!

NAT yakira ubusabe buva kuri bwamudasobwa iri muri Private Network kugira ijye kuri murandasi .NAT icyo ikora ibika IP address ziyo mudasobwa ikayishyira muri table yayo yarangiza igahindura iyo private IP address mo public IP address za router.

 

ESE NAT ikintu cyingenzi ikora nikihe?!!

NAT ubundi ikintu cyambere ikora ishyiraho imipaka kuma public IP azakoreshwa na organization runaka cyangwa kompanyi bigendeye kumpamvu ya yumutekano .

 

 

Ibikoresho Bikoresha NAT byakira ubusabe bwokuba byakoresha murandasi biturutse muri Private Network.NAT icyo ikora ifata IP address yicyo gikoresho yarangiza ikayibika muri NAT table yarangiza igafata iyo Private IP address ikayihinduramo Public IP.

Nukuvugako iyo ibyo igikoresho cyari kiri muri Private Network cyasabye bibonetse ibikoresho bikoresha NAT bireba muri NAT table aho ama IP address yose ava muri Private Network abikwa mbere yuko ajya kuri Murandasi.NAT ifata ibyabonetse bivuye kuri murandasi yarangiza ikabyohereza muri Public Network kuri cyagikoresho cyasabye Service Runaka.

Turebeye kuri iki gishushanyo kiri ruguru kirerekana ama Telephone abiri Imwe ikoresha Private IP inyuma yiyo Router irimo Gukora nka NAT .

Iriya telephone ifite IP 192.168.0.12 ikoresha Private IP address igihe iri muri LAN .

Ariko iyo ishaka guhanahana amakuru yifashishije murandasi icyo gihe , iriya router izafata iriya Private IP iyihinduremo Public IP kandi muri iki gihe router izamenya aho igomba kohereza uvutumwa kuberako hano irigukoreshwa nk’igikoresho  gikoresha NAT.

 

 

Reka dukomereze kuri TCP/IP .

TCP/IP mumagambo arambuye bisobanuye Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol aya akaba aria ma  protocol akoreshwa muguhanahana amakuru kuri murandasi(Internet).

Aha ushobora kuba aribwo ubonye ijambo protocol bigahitabigutera kwibaza uti ese protocol Niki?!?

Protocol murimake nuburyo bwemeranijweho kugirango habeho guhanahana amakuru cyangwa kuganira dufashe nkurugero rwa kompanyi itwara abagenzi mu Rwanda aho mugihe cyogutangira amashuri biyemeza gutwara abanyeshuri bambaye umwambaro wishuri mbere yabandi ..iyo akaba ariyo protocol yabo muri icyo gihe.

 

Hari ama protocol menshi akoreshwa kuri murandasi harimo IP,TCP,UDP,FTP,HTTPS,POP nayandi menshi cyane…ariko buri protocol iba ifite amategeko ayigenga .TCP/IP aya niyo ma  protocol yingenzi akoreshwa kuri murandasi akaba ari nayo turi burebe uko akora.

TCP/IP yakozwe muwi 1978 inakurikitanwa na Bob Kahn namugenziwe Vint Cerf ,TCP/IP igena uburyo amakuru abitse,yoherejwe,yakiriwe nuburyo ki agomba kugera aho yoherejwe.

 

TCP/IP packet Niki?!?

Packet nurugero rwibanze rwa(information) nukuvuga amakuru muri Network transmission .

Reka turebe TCP/IP uburyo ikora: nkuko amazina abigaragaza hano ni ama protocol abiri ahujwe ariyo TCP na IP. Internet Protocol(IP) ibwira packets aho igomba kujya nuburyo igomba kugerayo. ako Niko kazi IP ikora, Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) yo irebako ntamakosa yabayeho muma packets yoherejwe kuri murandasi iyo amakosa agaragaye irongera ikohereza packets ako Niko kazi kayo.

Amoko atatu ya TCP/IP Protocols akunzwe gukoreshwa cyane kuri Murandasi.

 

1.HTTP:ikoreshwa hagati ya web client na web server habaho guhererekanwa kw’amakuru cyngwa service umutekano wayo ntabwo uba uhanitse cyane,web client (internet browser ikoreshwa kuri mudasobwa) yohereza ubusabe kuri web server isaba kuba yareba web page runaka.icyo gihe web server yakira ubusabe bwa web client ikohereza amakuru yose yiyo web page yasabwe na web client .

2.HTTPS: ikora kimwe nka HTTP arikoyo amakuru itanga iyatanga muburyo bifite umutekano

cyane cyane HTTPS mugihe ushaka guhaha wifashishije murandasi.

3.FTP:ikoreshwa hagati ya mudasobwa ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi .

Aho mudasobwa imwe yohereza amakuru  kuyindi mudasobwa cyangwa ikakira amakuru  guturuka kuyindi mudasobwa ako kanya.

 

[Networking]:igice cyakabiri kikaba kirangiriye aha ikaba irangiriye aha ahubutaha…. Tukaba tuzareberahamwe ubwoko bwa Server ndetse nuko zikora…

 

Ufite ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka gutanga, Andika ahagenewe kwandika ibitekerezo ,

Nimba wakunze ibyo twanditse wasangiza n’abandi …

 

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