[Linux]: Linux for Hacker Part One

Abantu benshi bashaka kuba aba hackers ntabwo baba bazi  cyangwa bamenyereye gukoresha linux ahubwo bakaba bafite ubumenyi bwinshi bujyanye na Windows Operating System na Mac .Rimwe na rimwe ukaba usanga iyi iba imwe mu mbogamizi abantu benshi bashaka kuba aba White Hack Hacker bagenda bahura nayo .Kumpamvu nyinshi nziza rero  Linux akaba ariyo Operating System wakwifashisha mugihe ushaka kuba umu White Hat Hacker ,Grey Hat Hacker cyangwa Black Hat Hacker !! Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese White Hat Hacker ,Grey Hat Hacker na Black Hat Hacker bishatse kuvuga iki?? Uyu mwanya ntabwo aribyo tuvugaho ariko tukazabikugezaho ubutaha reka dukomeze naka gace kambere kavuga kuri Linux .

Bavugako kugira ube umu hacker ugomba kuba uzi byibuze ibyibanze kuri Linux Operating System . Akaba ariyo mpamvu nafashe akanya kugira njye mbagezaho ibyibanze wagakwiye kumenya kuri Linux aka akaba ari kamwe muduce tuzajya tugenda dukurikirana tukubwira  kubyerekeye Linux Operating System  kuva kuri zero kugeza haricyo umenye (professional),White Hacker.

 

Nzageragerageza kureba uburyo wakongera ubumenyi mugukoresha Linux Operating System buhoro buhoro uko uzagenda usoma kugeza uburyo uzaba ushobora gukora Hacking .

 

Muri uru ruhererekane tuzakoresha Linux Operating System Yitwa Kali Linux ningero zose uzabona hano nyinshi zijyanye na Hacking Tuzazibereka dukoresheje kali Linux ushaka kuyi manura wajya kuri iyi link : kali-linux

Mbere yuko ntangira ndizerako buri wese azi uburyo ushobora gushyira Operating System muri mudasobwa ye cyangwa ukaba uzi uko wakoresha Hypervisors (vmware,cyangwa virtualbox) hari utazi uko yabigenza yatwandikira kuri facebook page yacu tukazamukorera video yerekana uburyo ushobora gukoresha Hypervisor.Ubu ndakeka buri wese afite muri mudasobwaye Kali Linux ariko utabashije kuyibona cyangwa udakunda ubwo bwoko bwa Linux hari andi ma Linux Operating System wakoresha kuberako murutu duce ibyo tuzagenda turebera hamwe byanakorwa hifashishijwe andi Linux Distributions nka Ubuntu,Linux Mint,etc….. ariko ibyiza nuko wakoresha Operating System nkiyo turaba turimo gukoresha .

1.fungura Terminal

Mugihe uri gukoresha Linux ikintu cyambere ugomba gukora nugufungura terminal .muri kali linux hari aka Icon kayigaragaza kari kuruhande rwibumoso kandaho incuro imwe ebyiri hazahita hafunguka window isa niyiyi foto ikurikira.

Iyo window ifungura icyitwa shell .ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese shel niki ??shell ni Command Line Interface ituma ukora ama commande amwe na mwe cyangwa ukaba wayifashisha wandika scripts.

Hari ubwoko bwinshi bwa shell ariko ubuzwi cyane akaba ari Bash Shell(Bourne Again Shell). Iyi ikaba ariyo iza muri Kali Linux ndetse nandi ma Linux Distribution.

 

  1. ugomba kumenya ibijyanye na File System

 

Bidahuye no muri Windows Operating System ,Linux Operating system yo ntabwo yerekana ama Hard Drives gusa .Linux Operating System yo uko ama File yayo  ameze mbere na mbere  haza icyo twita root hamwe uzasanga igaragazwa nakamenyetso kameze gutya /.

Ikaba ariyo iza hejuru yandi ma Logical File Structure.

Urebye neza kuri iyi foto iri hejuru ya Linux File System ahabanza hariho root cyangwa /.

Ariko ntuzitirange “root” user na root(/) ya File System ibi n’ibintu bibiri bitandukanye.hano root ninkibanze ry’uko File system yubatse.

Reka turebere hamwe amwe muma sub-directories ya root icyo agenda akora  .

1./root:iyi yerekana home directory kuri buri mu super user nukuvuga root user:

2./etc iyi folder cyangwa directory yo ibika ama configuration yose ajyanye na linux Operating System.

3./home iyi ikaba ari home directory y’umu user runaka.

4./mnt aha niho andi ma file systems aba abitse

5./bin niho ama binaries cyangwa exexutables muri Windows  aba abitse.

6./lbb aha niho ama libraries files aba ari.

Reka tube turekeye aha tuzagenda tubona icyo amwe n’amwe agenda akora mutundi duce cyangwa izindi nkuru zizagenda zigera kuri uru rubuga .

3.PWD

Rimwe na rimwe iyo ukoresha Linux harigihe wumva ushaka kumenya aho urimo gukorera nukuvuga kumenya directory urimo, Uyimenya wifashishije Command ya  PWD(Present Working Directory )  iyi yerekana aho urimo gukorera .ibi biba byiza iyo ushaka kuva muri directory imwe ujya muyindi bigufasha kumenya aho uva  .

Fungura terminal yawe nkuko twabibonye mbere andikamo  “pwd” command ukuyeho “” uhite ukanda Enter uzahita ubona aho uri gukorera .

Uko ubibona Linux ihise ituzanira /root itubwirako turi muri directory ya root user .iyo tuba turi muri indi directory yariguhita izana izina ryaho turi .

4.whoami

Linux burigihe ntabwo isabako ukora login uri Root user  burigihe ushobora nogukora Login  uri umu user usanzwe .ugereranije na window iyo tuvuze root user muri linux aba ari nka Administrator muri windows Operating System .Bikaba Atari byiza kandi ko burigihe ukora loggin uri root kuko ushobora kuba waba hacked numuntu runaka akaba yakwangiza ibyawe byose bikaba ari byiza ko ugomba gukora loggin nk’umuser usanzwe .

Rimwe na rimwe rero ushobora kwibagirwa uko wakoze loggin nimba walogginze nka root cyangwa nk’umuser usanzwe rero kugira umenye  uko walogginze hifashishwa “whoami” command .

Iyo nza kuba na logginze nka user usanzwe  ,system yariguhita izana izina ry’uwo mu user.

5.cd

cd command  icyo ifasha ituma ubasha kuva muri directory ujya muyindi ukoresheje terminal akaba ari bumwe m’ubumenyi bwibanze ugomba kuba ufite mugihe ukoresha Linux Operating System.

Bijya gusa neza nko muri windows command Line, naho dukoresha cd (change directory)command dushaka  guhindura directory ,Uko cd commend ikoreshwa fungura terminal>andika cd usige akanya ukurikizeho izina rya Directory ushaka kujyamo .

urabona ko twahise tujya muri /etc directory nkuko ubibona ushobora kureba ko aribyo wandika command twabonye haruguru “pwd”.

ushobora gukoresha cd ugasiga umwanya ugakurikizaho / (cd  /) ushaka kujya kuri root level.

cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri directory ibanziriza iyo urimo ushobora gukoresha kali>cd .. wabikora wandika cd ugakurikizaho utudomo tubiri.

cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri level ebyiri zabanjye nukuvuga inyumaho kabiri bitewe naho uri

koresha kali>cd .. .. cyangwa cd ../..

 

6.ls command

Ushobora kuba uri muri directory runaka ukaba ushaka kureba ibintu byose biyirimo ushobora gukoresha “ls ” command ukuyeho “” ukareba ibitu byoser biri muri iyo directory.

Kali>ls

Ikindi ugomba kumenya ama files amwe namwe muri linux aba ahishe kuburyo utapfa kuyabona ukoresheje ls cyangwa ls -l command ariko ushobora kuyabona ukoresheje ls wongeyeho -a  switch command (ls -a).

Kali>ls -a

7.help

 

Ubundi urebye buri command muri linux igira ubufasha(help) nukuvuga ushobora kubona uburyo ikoreshwa urebye muri  file yayo yerekana uburyo ikora ndetse nuko ikoreshwa .

Help command ikwereka uburyo ushobora gukoresha no gusobanukirwa uburyo command ushaka gukoresha ikora nuko wayikoresha .

Urugero nshobora kuba nshaka uburyo nakoresha wireless cracking tool nshobora kwiyandikira iyo command runaka ngakurikizaho –help  ikanyereke uko ikoreshwa.

Ubundi buryo ushobora kwifashisha ushaka kubona uko commande runaka ikoreshwa ushobora kwifashisha -h cyangwa ? kugira ubone ubufasha bujyanye na command iyo ariyo yose .

Nshobora kuba nshaka kumenya uko nakoresha wordpress vulnerabilitie scanning tool (wpscan)

Nahita nandika wpscan -h muri terminal ako kanya mpita mbona uko wpscan ikora nuko nayikoresha

8.man

Icyiyongera kuri help switch ku ma commands menshi nama applications ushobora kubona information zerekeye application runaka cyangwa command runaka ugiye kuri manual page yayo.

Urebye buri Linux igira manual page ya buri application na command .

Ushobora kubona manual wanditse muri terminal man commands imbere ya command ushaka kureba manual page yayo cyangwa application :

Urugero: Fungura Terminal wandike man ukurikizeho commande ushaka (man aircrack-ng )

Iyi izahita ifungura manual page ikatwereka information zose kurusha izo amakuru twabona dukoresheje -help.

Aka kakaba ari agace kambere twareberaga hamwe

Ndakeka burikimwe cyagaragaye neza hagize icyo ushaka kudukosoraho cyangwa kutwunganira watwandikira kuri facebook page yacu .

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