Linux For Hacker Part Four

Networking!!!!

Ushobora kuba umaze imyaka myinshi ukoresha GUI muri windows cyangwa Mac ariko icyo nakwizeza nuko uburyo bwiza bwokugira ube umuhacker nyawe aruko wamenya byinshi kubyerekeye linux .

Ariko iyo umuntu avuze Linux abenshi mubatangizi (beginners) bayitinya kubi kuberako baba banga gukora ibintu byose bikorerwa muri terminal cyangwa CLI kubera akamenyero baba bafite kokwikoreshereza GUI akaba ariyo mpamvu nateguye aya masomo yuruhererekane kugirango ubashe kumenye bike byerekeye Linux.

Nk’umu hacker Networking ningenzi . Iyo tuvuze networking tuba tuvuze uburyo imashini yawe cyangwa iyundi muntu zabasha guhura zikaba zakumvikana muburyo bwoguhanahana amakuru gusangira network ibi bikaba bizadufasha muburyo bwokwigarurira mudasobwa yundi .

Rimwe na rimwe rero uba ukeneye kuba connected kuri network ariko ukaba ufite nubushobozi bwoguhisha IP address nibindi byinshi bikwerekeyeho .Muri aka gace rero turarebera hamwe bike mubyerekeye Networking muri Linux ndavuga bike kuberako ntabwo twavuga byose byerekeye Networking mugace kamwe .

1.Analyzing Networks and Network Interfaces

Command yibanze ukoresha kugirango ubasha kumenya ibyerekeye NIC(Network Interface Card ) iyi akaba ari Card igufasha ,iguha ubushobozi bwokuba waba aconnected kuri network runaka .

Commande ikoreshwa kugira urebe ibyerekeye NIC ni commande ya ifconfig IKORESHWA MURI Linux ushaka kumenya ibyerekeye NIC muri window wakoresha commande ya ipconfig

Uko ubibona kuri iyi photo iri haruguru commande ya ifconfig iduha information zerekeye NIC .

Kumurongo wambere urabona ahanditse eth0 .Iyo iba ari Network ikoresha umugozi(Wired) .

Ethernet 0 (Eth0)  Linux itangira kubara ihereye kuri 0 aho guhera kuri 1.

Ibikurikir urabona ubwoko bwa Network irimo gukoreshwa (Ethernet) na Hwaddr iyi akaba ari Address iba ari iba yihariye kuri buri gikoresho iba ari imwe kwisi . Ushobora kuba ubizi cyangwa utabizi iyi address niyo bita MAC address .

Umurongo wakabiri uriho ibyerekeye IP address, 192.168.0.3 Broadcast address (akaba ari address ikoreshwa iyo ushaka kohereza information kuma mashine yose ari kuri Network nkiyo uriho).Na network Mask (iyi akaba ariyo yerekana igice cya Network nigice cyama Machine )ushobora kuba utabashije gusobanukirwa neza ariko nzareba uburyo nababwira kubyerekeye subnetting nibwo uzabasha kumenya icyo subnet imara neza.

Hari amakuru menshi tubona haruguru ariko ntabwwo byose twabivuga muri aka gace .

Umanutse gake urabona igika gikurikira (paragraph) icyo gika gitangirwa na lo .iyi ikkaba ari address ya loopback cyangwa localhost. Iyi ikaba ari iya mudasobwa urimo gukoresha ikaba ikoresha iyo ushaka kugarageza (test) webserver yawe .ikaba igaragazwa na IP address ya 127.0.0.1.

Reka turangirize kugika cyanyuma urahabona interface wlan0 iyi igaragara iyo ufite wireless interface cyangwa Network adapter.Hano urabona ko njye nyifite kuberako mfite wireless adapter. Ikaba inagaragaza MAC address yiyo adapter (hwaddr).

Noneho mugihe dufite wireless adapter .ushobora kubona amakuru yerekeye iyo Adapter ukoresheje commande ya iwconfig ibi bikaba bidufasha iyo ushaka gukora wireless hacking.

Reka turebe wireless device dukoresheje iwconfig command.

Kali >iwconfig

Nkuko ubibona haruguru hagaragara amakuru ya wireless device.

Nkuko ubibona hari wlan0.muri iyo paragraph iri haruguru hari 801.11 standard nukuvugako wireless adapter ishobora gufata (bg),uraza kubona na Mode:Managed(promiscuous mode ushobora kuzakenera muri wireless hacking).

Step 2: Changing IP Address(uburyo wahindura IP address ya mudasobwa yawe)

Guhindura ip address ya mudasobwa yawe muri Linux nibintu byoroshye kubi .byoroshye kurusha uko wabikora muri windows ukoresheje  GUI bisaba click nyinshi.

Ariko ikindi wagakwiye kumenya muburyo bwinshi cyangwa ahantu henshi ushobora kugira aho IP address zihabwa mudasobwa dynamically hakoreshejwe DHCP server(Turaza gukurikizaho nyuma yiyi paragraph)

Ushobora kuba ushaka guhindura IP address ya mudasobwa yawe  cyane cyane iyo ushaka gukora hack .

Ushobora guhindura IP address ya mudasobwa yawe ukoresheje commande ya ifconfig ugakurikizaho interface ushaka guhindura IP address ugakurikizaho IP address ushaka kuyiha.

Kali >ifconfig eth0 192.168.126.135

Aka kanya ushobora gukoresha command ya ifconfig urebako IP address zahindutse.

Kali>ifconfig

Ntabwo ari IP address yonyine wahindura ushobora no guhindura netmask na broadcast address

Kali>ifconfig eth0 192.168.126.135 netmask 255.255.0.0 broadcast 192.168.2.255

Uburyo bwa 3: DYNAMIC HOST CONFIGURATION PROTOCOL (DHCP)

Ubundi Linux ifite DHCP Server ikora muri muburyo bwa daemon(Daemon bisobanuye Program cyangwa process ikora muri background nukuvuga ukoresha mudasobwa irimo linux adapfa kubonako irimo gukora) bwitwa DHCPD cyangwa dhcp daemon .Ubundi DHCP server niyo itanga ama ip address kuma system yose aba arimo gukora kuri network runaka cyangwa subnet.

Ushobora kuba ushaka guhindura cyangwa gukoresha ip address uhawe na dhcp server wakoresha iyi commande kugira ubashe kubona iyo Ip address dhclient ikurikiranye nizina ry ainterface (urugero :eth0) ikindi ugomba kumenya hano nuko buri distro ifite uburyo ikoresha dhclient ariko kali linux n’ubuntu linux bikoresha dhclient commande imwe.

Kali>dhclient eth0

Commande ya dhclient yohereza ubusabe kuri dhcp server (DHCP DISCOVER) BUTURUTSE KURI NIC.

Iyo ibonye dhcp offer ya ip address runaka iturutse kuri linux server ihita ikoresha iyo ip address ihawe ushobora guhita ukoresha ifconfig kugira urebe ip address wahawe.

Uburyo bwa4: DNS(Domain Name Service)

DNS cyangwa Domain Name Server ni service ituma dukoresha amazina nka ktimez.com icyo ikora izina ryose wanditse mur url hasigaye ikarihinduramo  ip address iryo zina riba ryarahawe .DNS itariho ndababwiza ukuriko tuba dutegetswe gufata ibihumbi nibihumbi byama ip address kuberako itariho byarikuzajya bidusaba kwandika ip address muri url kugira tubone uko dusoma inkuru cyangwa ibindi.

Command ikunzwe gukoreshwa cyane izanakoreshwa cyane kuri uru rubuga rwacu ni dig commande ikaba arikimwe nka nslookup muri window .kano kanya reka tuyikoreshe dig dukurikizeho ktimez.com dushyireho na option ya ns  izatwereka nameserver ya www.ktimez.com

Kali>dig ktimez.com ns

Dukoresheje commande ya dig ikurikiranye na option ya mx dushobora kubona information za www.ktmize.com email server

Kali >dig ktimez.com mx

Nkumuhacker rero command ya dig no gukoresha DNS kugira ubone information kuri system dushaka kwigarurira uru rukaba ari nkurufunguzo rudufasha kumenya byinshi byerekeye target yacu(system dushaka kwataka)

Ubundi Linux DNS server izwi cyane akaba ari Berkeley Internet Name Domain cyangwa Bind .rimwe na rimwe harigihe abakoresha Linux Operating System bitiranya DNS na Bind.

Rwose hano DNS cyangwa BIND icyo bidufasha nugushyira izina kuri IP address runaka.

Ubishatse nawwe ushobora guhindura DNS file ukaba wafata DNS service ukaba wayishyira kuri local Dns server cyangwa pubic DNS server. Ibi ushobora kubikorera muri file wasanga muri /etc/resolv.conf.

Ushobora gufungura iy file ukoresheje iyi commande kali>nano /etc/resolv.conf

Nkuko ushobora kubibona haruguru  hari umurongo umwe wa nameserver,nameserver niyo ushobora gushyira kuri local DNS nukuvuga local ip address yawe .ushobora nokuyishyiraho indi IP address cyangwa ukaba wayihinduza indi nka GOOGLE public ip address kuri 8.8.8.8 ushobora nokongeraho undi murongo ushatse muri /etc/resolv.conf

kali> sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf

Reka tube turekeye aha rero naho ubutaha aho tuzareberahamwe aho twaha ama file nama directory twayaha permission nimba utaratangiranye natwe wajya kuduce twabanjirijr utu ubundi ukaba Wabasha kugeza aho tugeze.

Ushobora kubona ikosa cyangwa typo watwandikira muri comment box tikabasha kurikosora

Kandi ntiwibagirwe gukora share

 

 

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