Ibintu 10 buri muntu ukoresheje Android bwambere akwiye kumenya

Guhitamo Smartphone nshya biba byiza ariko rimwe na rimwe guhitamo iyo ukoresha biba bitoroshye ,ariko niba ufite gahunda yo gukoresha igikoresho gikoresha OS ya Android ariko ukaba utazi aho wahera komeza usome.

Niba uteganya kugura igikoresho gikoresha Android  cyangwa ukaba  warakiguze ukaba ushaka kumenya byinshi bicyerekeyeho, tugufitiye iby'ibanze wagakwiye kumenya ku byerekeye Android Operating System

Tudatinze  mu magambo rero reka dutangire.

1. Ese Android ni iki?

Android ubundi ni Operating System ikunze gukoreshwa cyane cyane muri Smartphone yakozwe na Google.nk'uko kuri za mudasobwa tugira Windows 7,8,10, Linux n'iindi. Ariko kuri telephone tugira Android, iOS na Windows. Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese Operating System ni iki?

Operating System muri make ni porogaramu icunga cyangwa igenzura ibikoresho biri kuri mudasobwa yawe cyangwa Telephone yawe ndetse n'andi ma porogaramu ari muri mudasobwa yawe cyangwa se telephone yawe .

2. Ninde Wavumbuye Android?

Operating System ya Android yavumbwe na kompanyi Ya Google ikaba yarashyizwe hanze muri 2008 akaba ari nacyo gihe ama kompanyi amwe n’amwe  yatangiye gushyira Android mu bikoresho byayo cyane cyane ama Telephone. Muri ayo ma kompanyi harimo LG, Samsung, Sony, Motorola n'andi menshi yakomeje gushyira Operating System ya Android muma Telephone, Tablets, amasaha, za Television ndetse n’ibindi.

3. Ese ni ukubera iki ama versions ya Android agenda yitwa amazina y'ibintu biryoherera?

Nyuma y'uko Android ishyirwa hanze cyangwa imurikwa, burigihe Google ikora Updates za Android ariko buri uko haje Version nshya iba ifite izina ry'ibintu biryoherera kandi ibyo biryoherera byose bigenda bifata amazina bitewe n'uko inyajwi zikurikirana urugero hari nka Éclair, Froyo, Gingerbread, Honeycomb, Ice Cream Sandwich, Jelly Bean , Kit Kat, Lollipop, Marshmallow, Nougat na Oreo ariyo iheruka.

4. Ese Android igira ama Apps(Applications)?

Google ifite ububiko bw'ama application buzwi ku izina rya Google Play Store, iyo Play Store rero iifite ama application atabarika ndetse n’ama games. Ushobora kuhamanurira kubuntu cyangwa ukaba wahagura ibitabo, indirimbo, videos nibindi.

5. Ese nihe nakura ama Apps  nakoresha muri Telephone yanjye?

Ku batabizi, aho wakura ama apps ushyira muri telephone yawe ni kuri Google Play aho niho wasanga ama porogaramu atabarika ndetse na Games wabasha gushyira muri telephone ikoresha OS ya android.

Ushobora no kuba urimo gukoresha mudasobwa yawe ukaba waninjiye wanakoze sign in ukoresheje account isa n'iyo wakoresheje muri telephone yawe ako kanya ushobora kumanura porogaramu runaka ukoresheje mudasobwa igaihta ijya muri Telephone yawe.

6.Ese ni ukubera iki Android igaragara mu buryo butandukanye bitewe n'igikoresho irimo?

Google ubundi ikora Android , ariko ubundi andi makompanyi nka Samsung ,Motorola n’andi makompanyi akoresha Android mu bikoresho akora, iyo akaba ari nayo mpamvu uko Android igaragara mu gikoresho cyakozwe na kompanyi imwe iba itandukanye n’uko igaragara mu kindi gikoresho cyakozwe n'indi kompanyi bitewe na nyiri kompanyi uko yashatse gukora icyo gikoresho.

7. Ni Ubuhe buryo bworoshye ushobora kuba wakoresha kugira ngo ubashe guhindura  uburyo ubika nimero zawe kuri telephone?

Akenshi na kenshi abenshi muri twe dukunze kubika nimero z'inshuti n’abavandimwe kuri Sim card cyangwa ku bubiko bwa Telephone ariko android hari ubundi buryo yashyizeho bwo kuba wabika nimero zawe zose kuri Gmail kugira ngo mu gihe wahinduye Telephone  cyangwa igihe wabuze Sim card yawe bizakorohere kuba wakongera kubona nimero z'inshuti zawe .

8. Ese Hari ama apps meza ya Android?

Hari ama application menshi ya android. Ushobora kubona ama apps bitewe n'icyo ushaka kuyikoresha cyangwa bitewe n'icyo ikora.

9. Itandukanirro riri hagati ya Home ndetse na App Drawer?

App drawer ni aho ushobora gusanga ama application yose ari muri Telephone yawe. Akaba ariho bitandukaniye na iPhone kubera ko kuri iPhone ama apps yawe yose aba ari kuri home Screen. Kuri Android ubona app drawer ndetse na Home aho ushobora gusyiraho ama application ukunda ndetse na widgets.

10. Ni gute wakomeza gucunga umutekano wa Telephone yawe?

Hari uburyo bwinshi wakoresha kugira ngo ukomeze usigasire umutekano wa Smartphone yawe. Android Operating System ubundi ikoresha Linux Kernel bivuze ko igira umutekano. Ariko ushobora gukoresha ubundi buryo kugira ngo ubashe gukaza umutekano wa Smartphone yawe .

Wakunze ibyo twanditse  wabisangiza n’abandi

by crook in Android

Linux for hacker:Igice cya kabiri

Mu gice cyambere, twarebeye hamwe ibyerekeye File system, cd cyangwa guhindura directory wakoreragamo n’ibindi byose by'ibanze.

Muburyo bwinshi uburyo bw'ibanze kugira ngo ubashe kuba umu white hat Hacker nuko ugomba kwimenyereza gukoresha command line interface(CLI) cyane.

Aka gace tugiye kurebera hamwe uko Wabasha gukoresha commands n’ibindi bikenerwa mu rugendo rwa hacking.

Akenshi na kenshi aba hacker bagitangira(beginners) baba bibaza uburyo babonamo ibintu nk'ama command amwe n'amwe kubera ko abenshi baba bamaze igihe kinini bikoreshereza windows Operating System cyangwa OSX kugira ngo babashe kubona commands zikunze gukoreshwa muri Hackings bikabagora.

Ushobora kuba wibaza uti ese ni gute namenya aho ibyo nshaka gukoresha byose biherereye ni ukuvuga ko ushobora kwifashisha command line ukaba wabona aho ama command amwe n'amwe abitse urugero nka directory, binaries, config files, n'ibindi aho byaba biherereye.

Uyu munsi rero tugiye kurebera hamwe uko twakoresha Terminal (command line ) kugira ngo turebe ko twabona aho andi ma commands abitse. Tudatinze mu magambo rero reka dutangirire kuri command yitwa Locate.

1. Locate

Linux ifite uburyo bwinshi ushobora gukoresha kugira ngo ubashe kuba wabona porogaramu runaka, commande, ama files n’ibindi wifashishije uburyo bworoshye bwa command line.

Uburyo bwa mbere bukunze gukoreshwa cyangwa wakoresha ni ugukoresha command yitwa Locate.

Locate ikoreshwa ikurikiranye n’ijambo ushaka gushaka (keyword) icyo iyi command ikora ibasha gushakisha muri file system ishakamo iryo jambo uyihaye aho riherereye.

Uko ikoreshwa ufungura terminal nk'uko twabibonye mu gice cyambere.

Andika locate ukurikizeho ijambo cyangwa command ushaka kumenya aho riherereye ubundi ukande Enter.


2. whereis

Niba tuzi neza icyo turigushaka ko ari binary (bihuye na executable muri window Os), Linux ifite commands zihariye ushobora gukoresha muri ayo ma commande harimo  whereis.

Whereis command ntabwo izakuzanira gusa aho binary ushaka iherereye ahubwo izanakwereka uko wayikoresha ikuzanira man page twabonye mu gace kambere.

1. kali>whereis aircrack-ng

2. Kali>whereis msfconsole

Aha izakwereka aho msfconsole Iherereye: /usr/bin/msfconsole /usr/share/man/man1/msfconsole.1.gz


Nk'uko ubibona kuri iyi foto iri haruguru  dukoresheje whereis  twabonya aho binary yitwa aircrack-ng iherereye, ariko aha nuyikoresha urimo gushaka document runaka ntabwo uzabasha kuyibona kubera ko ikoreshwa mu gushaka ama binaries n'andi ma command gusa.

3. which

Which yo irihariye kuko yo yerekana aho commande runaka iherereye.

1. Kali>which aircrack-ng 

2. Kali>which msfconsole



4. FIND

FIND ni command ikunze gukoreshwa cyane kubera uburyo  yoroshya uburyo umuntu ashaka ibintu. Commande ya find ifite ubushobozi bwo gushaka file cyangwa binary muri directory runaka ikanashakisha ayo ma file cyangwa ama binaries yifashishije amwe mu ma parameters harimo nk'izina rya file n’ibindi. Ibi bikurikira nibyo ishobora kukwereka.

1. Igihe yaba yarakorewe (created) cyangwa yaba yarahinduriwe(modified)

2. Nyirayo

3. Permission

4. Ingano yiyo file cyangwa folder(size)

5. Group

Uburyo wakoresha find ni ubu:

Andika Find <ukurikizeho directory ushaka ko ishakiramo> <options> <expression>

Niba ushaka nko gushaka file ibitse kuri root (/)  ifite izina rya apache2 wakoresha iyi commmand:

1. Kali>find / -type  f -name apache2

2. kali>find /root/Desktop f –name izina rya file ushaka

/:ni directory iri bushakiremo
Ushobora gusimbuza / n'ahandi hantu ushaka gushakira. Urugero, ushobora gushyiraho usr,share,lib.

-type: ni type ya file aha ni ukugaragaza ko -f bivuzeko ari file isanzwe

-name: irashakisha igendeye ku izina apache2 ni ukuvuga izina ishaka.



Nk'uko ubibona command ya find yatangiriye aho file system itangirira igenda ishakisha muri buri directory yose ishakamo ijambo apache2 aho riherereye, ikaba yabonye ahantu henshi hari apache2, bikaba byatuma iyi commande igenda gake ni ukuvuga ko kubona icyo dushaka kubera ko find igenda ishakisha muri buri directory.

Reka turebe igihe tuzaba dushaka apache2 iherereye muri /etc directory.

Kuri ubu buryo tuzatangira gushaka duhereye kuri /etc directory. Icyo find izakora izareba muri iyo directory nirangiza ihite iduha igisubizo kijyanye n'ibyo twasabye.

Kali>find /etc -type  f -name apache2


Nk'uko ubibona haruguru ubu nibwo buryo bwihuse kurusha ubwabanje aha yerekana aho apache2 iri n'ama subdirectory iherereyemo muri /etc directory. find aho itandukaniye n'andi macommand twabonye haruguru nka Locate ,Whereis yo ni uko itwereka neza aho file dushaka iherereye mu buryo bwihuse.

Mugihe muri folder urimo gushakiramo harimo andi ma files afite izina rijya gusa n'iryo ushaka cyangwa ushaka kureba ama files yose yifitemo izina ushaka wakoresha iyi commande ikurikira:

Kali>find /etc -type  f -name ‘apache2.*’


5. grep

Mu gihe urimo gukoresha command line ushobora gushaka keyword runaka. Commande ya grep yo ni filter kugira ngo ishake keyword runaka. Ikoreshwa rimwe na rimwe iyo output yatanzwe na command runaka ushaka kuyishyira muyindi commande ibyo bita (piping) ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese piping ni iki? piping ni uburyo ufata output ya command runaka ukaba wayikoresha muyindi command. Kugira ngo dukore piping twifashisha | ako karongo nk'urugero nshobora kuba nshaka kureba process zirimo ku running nkoresheje commande ya ps ikurikiwe na aux switch:

Uko yandikwa: kali >ps aux


Uko ubibona haruguru iyi commande impa ama services arimo ku running muri system. None se mugihe ushaka kureba service imwe irimo ku running uyikuye muri aya ma services arimo ku running wakora iki?

Ushobora kwifashisha piping ufata output wabonye wufashishije ps aux ukayijyana muri grep Wenda nshaka kurebako apache2 services irimo gukora(running).

Nakwandika kali>ps aux | grep apache2

Iyi commande yerekana ama services arimo ku running yarangiza ikohereza output kuri grep aho grep izashakamo keyword wabashije kuyiha ariyo apache2 hano twakoresheje yarangiza ikaduha output.


Uko ubibona haruguru grep yabashije gukora filter ikuramo keyword twayihaye iba ariyo itwereka yonyine ikaba idufasha mu kudatakaza igihe burigihe dukora scan y'ama services arimo kurunning.

Niba ushaka kuba white hat hacker cyangwa ufite mugenzi wawe ubishaka kora share.

Hari ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho watwandikira ahagenewe ibitekerezo cyangwa kuri page yacu ya facebook ktimez.com tukabasha kugufasha.

by crook in Dev Ops

Uburyo wabika status ya whatsapp udafashe Screenshot

Twese kuri ubu tuzi application yitwa Whatsapp abenshi muri twe turayikoresha kuri ubu hari uburyo yashyizeho bwo kuba wahindura status kuri konti yawe ya whatsapp ukaba wasangiza inshuti zawe muri ayo ma status washyiraho harimo (amafoto,video …).

Ariko nubwo whatsapp yashyizeho ubwo buryo bwokuba wasangiza inshuti zawe amafoto n’ibindi ntabwo irabasha gushyiraho
uburyo wakoresha kugira ngo ubashe kuba wabika ifoto cyangwa video inshuti yawe yashyize kuri status ye igihe wayikunze.

Wabifata ute nkubwiye ko hari uburyo washobora kuba wabika iyo status mugihe wayikunze?

Muri iyi nkuru tugiye kurebera hamwe uburyo twabika (save) status inshuti zacu zashyize kuri account zabo mugihe twabikunze utiriwe ufata Screenshot .

Icyo bigusaba ni ugushyira porogaramu yitwa status saver muri telephone yawe gusa ubundi ukaba wakwibikira amafoto cyangwa  video inshuti zawe zashyize kuri status zabo.

Reka turebere hamwe icyo bidusaba kugirango tubashe kuba twabika status z’inshuti zacu mugihe twakunze ayo ma status.

1.Manura porogaramu yitwa status saver for whatsapp uyishyire muri telephone yawe nurangiza uyifungure. Ushobora kuyimanura unyuze aha (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.gremamdia.stosaver)

2.Fungura whatsapp yawe ukande kuri status y’uwo ushaka kubika status afite nurangiza utegereze video cyangwa ifoto irangize ku loading .

3.Fungura ya porogaramu washyize muri telephone yawe (Status Saver for Whatsapp) ubundi uhitemo video cyangwa amafoto aha icyo usabwa ni uguhitamo icyo ushaka kureba. Ni ukuvuga ko status wabitse ako kanya izahita igaragara muri iyo porogaramu .

4.Kanda kuri download button nurangiza wongere ukande ahanditse save ako kanya ifoto izahita ijya muri Gallery yawe.

Ubu akaba aribwo buryo bwambere wakoresha kugira ngo ubashe kubika status muri gallery ya telephone yawe.

Uburyo bwa kabiri wakoresha ukabona status zose waba wararebye:

1.Fungura telephone yawe nurangiza ufungure Filemanager

2.Fungura Whatsapp folder nurangiza ufungure folder yanditseho Media.



3.Emeza kubona ama folder ari hidden (ahishwe) umaze kuyemeza uzahita ubona folder yitwa statuses. Yifungure uzahita ubona status zose wabashije kubona 



Ubu akaba aribwo buryo wakoresha ukabona status z'inshuti zawe zose utifashishije porogaramu n'imwe! Ubu akaba aribwo buryo wakoresha kugirango ubashe kubika status y’inshuti yawe mugihe wayikunze.

Hari ikibazo cyangwa igitekereo ufite watwandikira ahagenewe kujya ibitekerezo.

by crook in How To

Ni ukubera iki aba Hackers benshi bakoresha Linux Operating System?

Uyu munsi tugiye kurebera hamwe impamvu itera aba hackers guhitamo gukoresha Linux operating system kurusha andi ma operating system nka windows n'ayandi.

Linux ni open source Operating System ikaba yaraturutse kuri version ishaje nka UNIX.

Linux ihora ikorwa umunsi ku munsi kandi bitewe n'ibyiza byinshi igira ugereranyije n'andi ma operating system akaba ariyo mpamvu nyamukuru aba hacker bakunze kuyikoresha. Bahitamo gukoresha Linux cyane aho gukoresha izindi operating system nka za Windows cyangwa Mac OS.

Reka turebere hamwe birambuye impamvu aba hackers bahitamo gukoresha Linux kurusha andi ma operating  System.

Mbere na mbere reka turebere hamwe icyo ijambo hacker rivuga:

 Hacker ni umuntu winjira muri computer networks (nk'uko twabibonye muri post zagiye zihita kuri uru rubuga) cyangwa akaba yakwinjira muri system ya mudasobwa y’umuntu usanzwe. Ibi hacker akabikora kubw'impamvu nyinshi zitandukanye zirimo kwishimisha, kwangiza, kwiba, kureba aho ubushobozi bwabo bugeze mu kwinjira mu bintu by’abandi badafitiye uburenganzira ndetse n'ibindi.

Byumvikana ko buri mu hacker wese akenera operating system itanga umutekano usesuye kugira ngo abashe kugerageza ubushobozi bwe cyangwa umuntu ubaha ubwirinzi bukomeye mu bikorwa byabo ikaba ariyo mpamvu Linux ikunze kubabera amahitamo ya mbere.

Uyu munsi rero amamiliyoni y'amakode (codes) amenshi yanditswe agenewe amaporogaramu ya Linux n'ama libraries.

Ubunyembaraga n'uburyo ishobora kuba yahindurwamo bitagoranye bikaba aribyo bituma aba hacker bose bihitiramo Linux.

Aba hacker kandi basobora kuyikoresha ,kuyiga ,ndetse no kuyisobanukirwa neza bivuze ngo iyo babonye ahantu hari umutekano udahagije hano umutekeno mvuga ntabwo ari ujyanye n'ingabo zirinda ahantu runaka ahubwo ni umutekeno w'ibintu bikorerwa kuri murandasi, bagerageza gushaka aho uwo mutekano muke waturutse bakanashakisha uburyo bawukomeza aribyo bita Penetration testing ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese penetration testing ni iki?? Ubu ni uburyo bwo gukora ubugenzuzi bwa system ya mudasobwa ,network ,web application kugira ngo urebeko hari ahantu umu hacker yanyura kugira ngo abashe kwigarurira mudasobwa yawe ,web application n'ibindi. Kubera iyo mpamvu rero abantu benshi muri iyi minsi bakaba barimo gushyira linux operationg system muri mudasobwa zabo.

Reka turebere hamwe ibyiza byo gukoresha linux kurusha uko wakoresha Mac, Windows Operating System

1.Open Source


Muri iyi minsi iyo ukoze porogram isaba ubumenyi cyangwa guhindura amacode akoze operating system ,amacode ya linux niyo waheraho ukaba wahindura source(ama codes kubantu bazi ibijyanye na programming) z'iyo operating system bitewe n'icyo ushaka kandi nama porogaramu yose akoreshwa muri linux OS(Operating System)nayo aba ari ama open source.

Open Source hano icyo bishatse kuvuga ni uko ushobora kubona ama codes akoze Linux Operating System runaka nta kiguzi bigusabye ari naho bitandukaniye na Windows Operating System yo ntana codes na nke wabona yayikoze.

2.Compatibility


Ni ukuvuga ko ama Unix packages yose akora no muri version nshya za linux.

Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese unix packages ni iki? Ni uruhurirane rwa software tools inashobora kuba yakwemera andi ma format y'ama files.

3.Fast And Easy Installation



Ubwoko bwa linux bwinshi burimo gusohoka muri ino minsi buzana  na user friendly installation no gushyiramo ama program ndetse ama linux Distribution yamenyekanye cyane aza arimo nuburyo bwo gushyiramo andi maporogaramu aba atarakoranywe n'izo linux
kuba yajyamo mu buryo bworoshye.

Kandi linux igihe ifata yaka kikaba ari gito ugereranuje n'icyo andi ma operating System afata.

4.Network Friendship


Nk'uko twabibonye ko iyi Operating System ari Open Source ikaba ihurirwaho n'abantu benshi kuri murandasi, Ikaba inatanga ama libraries menshi ndetse n'ama commands ashobora kuba yakoreshwa mu gukora network penetration.

Iyi operating System(Linux) ikaba ikora backup ya network mu buryo bwihuse kurusha andi ma Operating Systems yose.

5.Stability


Ni Linux Operating System yonyine itazigera igusaba kuzimya mudasobwa yawe kugira ngo ikomeze gukora neza kandi ikaba ari Operating System idapfa gu Freezing cyangwa kugenda gake bitewe n'igihe imaze ikoreshwa. Ushobora Gukoresha iyi Operating System imyaka n'imyaka.

6.Multitasking


Linux yakozwe kugira ngo ikore ibintu byinshi mu gihe gito nk'urugero nka large printing job iba irimo gukora muri background ntabwo ituma akazi irimo gukora kagenda gahoro bivuze ko n'akandi kazi gashobora gukorwa bitabangamiye process yabanjije.

7.Full use of Hard Disk

Ni linux yonyine izakomeza gukora neza nubwo hard disk yaba igiye kuzura aribyo bidakunze kubaho kuyandi ma operating systems .


8.Flexibility


Ibintu by'ingenzi Linux irusha andi ma Operating System nuko  ishobora kuba yakoreshwa muma High-Performance Server application ,Desktop Application no mu ma Embedded System .

9.Low Cost


Nkuko twabibonye mbere tuvuga kuri open Source, LINUX Operating Systems ukaba wayibona nta kiguzi utanze ukoresheje murandasi ndetse n'amaporogaramu ikoresha nayo uyabona nta kiguzi  ni ukuvuga ko nta kiguzi bigusaba kugira ngo ubashe kubona Linux OS ariko siko Linux OS yose aboneka kubuntu hari amoko amwe n'amwe agurishwa bitewe n'aba nyiri kuyakora muri ubwo bwoko harimo RedHat .

10.Less Vulnerable

Muri iyi minsi ama operating System yose aboneka ukuyemo linux aba afite Vurnerability nyinshi muri izo ariko Linux niyo ifite ubwirinzi buhambaye ugereranije n'andi ma Operating System (OS) . Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese Vurnerability ni iki? Vurnerability ugendeye mu buryo bw'ikoranabuhanga ni igihe mudasobwa yawe idafite ubwirinzi buhagije kuburyo yabasha guhangana n’ibitero aba hacker bagira kuri iyo mudasobwa.

11. Support For Most Programming Languages


Linux ikaba yemera cyangwa yakira uruhurirane rw'ama programming languages, harimo C/C++, Java, PHP, Ruby, Python, Perl n'andi menshi akora neza akoresheje linux Operating System.

12.Mostly, Hacking Tools are written for Linux.



Ama tools yamenyekanye yose akoreshwa muri Hacking nka Metasploit na Nmap aya ma tools akaba afite na version ya windows ni ukuvuga ko ushobora kuba wayakoresha wifashishije na Windows Operating System, ariko ubushobozi iba ifite muri windows ntaho buba buhuriye n’ubwo wayikoresha wifashishije linux.Linux ifite tools zimwe na zimwe nziza kandi ikaba inagenzura memory muburyo bwiza ugeranije n'andi ma Operating System.

13.Privacy is Taken Seriously

Hari amakuru menshi yagiye avugwa ku byerekeye ku mutekano muke wa windows 10. Windows 10 Operating System ubusanzwe ikusanya ama data(ni ukuvuga ibintu byawe byose ubitse yaba amabanga ndetse n'ibindi ) ubitse, ariko ntabwo uzigera wumva hari umuntu wavuze ko cyangwa harinkuru ivugako Linux ikusanya ama data yawe n'ibindi byaba bikwerekeyeho akaba ariyo mpamvu aba hacker bahitamo kwikoreshereza linux .
Ni ukuvugako mu gihe ukoresha Windows Operating System ugomba kumenya ko ibintu byose by'ibanga ubitse hari abandi babibona mu buryo bw'ibanga.

14. You don’t need Drivers


Linux ntabwo ikenera ama drivers ahubwo yo iba yifitiye ayakoranwe nayo aba ari mucyo bita linux kernel iza muri buri linux installation. Bisobanuye ko udakeneye CDs ukundi kugira ngo ubashe gushyira ama Drivers muri mudasobwa yawe igihe ukoresha linux.
Ushobora kwibaza uti ese Drivers ni iki? Niba warigeze gushyira Operating System ya windows muri mudasowa yawe ndizera ko waba warahuye n'ikibazo kimwe muri ibi bikurikira:
1.Kuba waramaze gushyira Windows Os muri mudasobwa yawe ariko washaka kureba amashusho y'indirimbo cyangwa Video ukabona atagaragara neza bikaba byaragusabye kuba washyiramo ama drivers ya Graphics kugira ngo amashusho abashe kugaragara neza.
2.kuba umaze gukora format ukaba utabasha kuba wakoresha Wireless
Ni byinshi bisaba ama drivers muri windows kugira ngo ubashe kubikoresha ariko siko bimeze ku bantu bakoresha Linux. Akaba ari nayo mpamvu rero aba hackers benshi bihitiramo gukoresha Linux .

15.Future Belongs To LINUX


Mu bintu byose twabonye haruguru ikintu cyagaragaye cyane nuko ahazaza h'ama Operating Systems yose hayobowe na Linux Operating System.

Wakunze ibyo twanditse wabisangiza n'abandi cyangwa ugize ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo watwandikira ahagenewe ibitekerezo!

by crook in Tech News Linux

[Sobanukirwa]: Itandukaniro riri hagati ya USB 2.0 na USB 3.0

Ushobora kuba urimo gukoresha mudasobwa usoma iyi nkuru cyangwa urimo ukoresha Telephone yawe ukaba utajya wita kuri USB ukoresha ushyira ibintu kuri Telephone yawe. Nk'uko tubizi muri iki gihe USB iri mu bintu bikoreshwa cyane ku isi, ariko se waba uzi icyo aya magambo asobanura? Muri iyi nkuru turarebera hamwe icyo USB bivuga ndetse tunarebere hamwe itandukaniro riri hagati ya USB 2.0 na USB 3.0.

Ese USB bivuze iki?
USB  mu magambo arambuye bivuga(Universal Serial Bus) ikaba ari imwe mu bikoresho bya Plug & Play. Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese ibikoresho bya Plug & Play biba bimeze bite? Ibikoresho bya Plug & Play ni  ibikoresho ucomeka kuri mudasobwa ukaba wabikoresha bitagusabye kuba washyira ama drivers yabyo muri mudasobwa kugira ngo bikore. Muri ibyo bikoresho harimo nka Keyboard, Mouse, Printer, Cameras, Flash Disk, External Hard Disk, n'ibindi. Niba  urimo gukoresha Mudasobwa ushobora kuba ubona imyobo(ports) ifite  amabara atandukanye harimo asa n'ubururu cyangwa umukara, ayo ma ports ukaba uyakoresha ucomeka Telephone yawe n'ibindi bikoresho bitandukanye. Ni ukuvuga ko ayo ma ports agufasha kuba wagenzura ibikoresho byinshi ukoresheje mudasobwa imwe ukoresheje HUB!

Ibyo USB 2.0 Igira

USB 2.0 Standard izwi nka Hi-Speed USB, ikaba yarabaye imbarutso yo kuza kwa USB. Ishobora kuba yakohereza data mu kigero kingana na 60Mbps, ikaba inihutisha uburyo ibintu byoherezwa ku bikoresho bikoresha ubwo bwoko bwa USB 2.0. Muri iki gihe ibikoresho hafi ya byose cyane cyane mudasobwa bicuruzwa biba bifite USB ya 2.0  ariko intege nke za USB 2.0 ni uko igenda gake igihe hakoreshejwe ibikoresho  bikoresha High data Transfer igihe iba itashaka kuyikoresha akaba ariyo mpamvu Hakozwe USB 3.0.

Ibyo USB 3.0 igira

Bitandukanye na USB 2.0, USB 3.0 ni Super High Speed ikaba ikubye inshuro icumi USB 2.0 mu kwihuta kubera ko yo ishobora kohereza ibintu bingana na 600Mbps. Bivuze ko ishobora kuba yakwakira naza External Hard Disk.

Itandukaniro riri hagati ya USB 2.0 na USB 3.0

=>Ubundi ikintu cyambere gitandukanya USB 2.0 na USB 3.0 ni uburyo zishobora koherezamo ibintu nk'uko twabibonye haruguru, USB 2.0 yohereza 60Mbps naho USB 3.0 ikohereza ibintu bingana na 600Mbps ni ukuvuga ko ishobora kohereza ibintu bingana na Megabytes 600 mu isegonda rimwe.

=>Ubundi Format za HD ntabwo zemerwa na USB 2.0 ariko zikaba zemerwa cyane na USB 3.0.

=>Ibikoresho bifite USB 3.0 bishobora kuba byakora kuri port ya USB 2.0 ariko ibikoresho bikoresha
USB 2.0 byo ntabwo byabasha gushyirwa kuri port ya USB 3.0

=>Ibikoresho bikoresha USB 2.0 bishobora kuba byakorana na mudasobwa irimo XP  Operating System mu gihe ibikoresho bikoresha USB 3.0 bitabasha gukorana nayo.

Iri akaba ari itandukaniro riri hagati ya USB 2.0 ndetse na USB 3.0.

Niba wakunze ibyo twanditse, bisangize n'abandi.

by crook in Tech News

Ibintu bitanu ukwiriye gukora nyuma yo kugura mudasobwa nshya

Abenshi muri iyi minsi bafite mudasobwa murugo cyangwa izo bagendana ndetse n'aho bakorera, niba ntayo ufite cyangwa ufite gahunda yo kuyigura hano hari ibyo wagakwiye gukora mbere y'uko ukoresha murandasi, ukina game n'ibindi.

Uyu munsi muri iyi nkuru turarebera hamwe bike wagakwiye gukora mbere y'uko ukoresha igikoresho wiguriye.

Tudatinze mu magambo reka dutangirire ku mwanya wambere. Kuri uyu mmwanya turahasanga:

1. gerageza ushyire system yawe kugihe (update your system)

Ari microsoft na apple bagerageza gushyira hanze ubwirinzi bushya n'uburyo bwo guhangana n'ibibazo byaba biri muri system. Igihe uguze mudasobwa yawe gerageza ushyire kugihe system yawe mbere y'uko ukoresha murandasi. Gushyira system yawe kugihe byongerera ubwirinzi mudasobwa yawe.

2. Gerageza ushyire kugihe ama drivers ya mudasobwa yawe (update drivers) 

ubundi iyo uguze mudasobwa nshya wakagombye kubona cd iriho ama drivers ya mudasobwa yawe, ariko nubwo abenshi bigira kuri black market(isoko rigurirwaho ibikoresho bya make akenshi bikunze kuba atari bishya) ntabwo babasha kubona iyo cd n'abayibona akenshi usanga igihe cy'ayo ma drivers cyararangiye.

gukora update y'ayo ma drivers ni ibintu byoroshye, icyo usabwa gukora ni ugufungura device manager ubundi ukareba ama drivers afite akamenyetso kagaragaza error ubundi nubona error iri kuri driver runaka ukore right click ubundi uhitemo update driver software.

3. Shyira antivirus muri mudasobwa yawe.

iki nicyo kintu cyambere cy'ibanze wagakwiye gukora mu gihe uguze mudasobwa nshya.

Uko tubizi ibikoresho byose bya electronics biba byoroshye ko byakwibasirwa n'aba hackers. Mu buryo bwo kwirinda aba hackers rero wagakwiye gushyira antivirus muri mudasobwa yawe mbere na mbere ukiyigura.

Ushobora kuba wahise wibaza uti ese aba hackers ni iki?

Hackers ni abantu baba bafite ubumenyi runaka kuri mudasobwa, bifashisha ubwo bumenyi bafite mu bikorwa byo kwigarurira mudasobwa z'abandi bantu.

4. Shyira ama porogaramu muri mudasobwa 

Uyu rero akaba ariwo mwanya wo gushyira ama porogaramu runaka uzakoresha muri mudasobwa yawe.

Hari ama porogaramu menshi kuri murandasi washyira muri mudasobwa yawe akaba yagufasha mu buzima bwawe bwa burimunsi. Mbere yuko umanura ayo ma porogaramu gerageza urebe neza ko ugiye kuyamanurira ahantu hizewe neza kubera ko hari imbuga nyinshi ziba zifite ama porogaramu atizewe ashobora kwangiza mudasobwa yawe. 

Reka turebere hamwe ama porogaramu amwe ashobora kudufasha mu buzima bwa buri munsi.

Ku mwanya wambere turahasanga Microsoft Office, Adobe reader igakurikira, Google Chrome cyangwa Mozilla Firefox, Adobe Photoshop n'andi menshi.

5. Ama porogaramu ya File Recovery

Abakoresha mudasobwa benshi ntabwo bita kuri iki kintu ariko iki ni ikintu cy'ibanze nacyo wagakwiye gukora igihe uguze igikoresho gishya(mudasobwa). 

Ubundi mu gihe utunze mudasobwa wagakwiye guteganya ko ibintu byose ubitsemo bishobora kubura mu kanya nk'ako guhumbya bitewe n'ama virus ukaba watakaza amafaranga menshi kugira ngo ubashe kubigarura. 

Ariko ushyizemo ama porogaramu yagufasha kugarura ibyo wabuze byaba byiza kurushaho.

Mbere yuko ushyiramo iyo porogaramu reba neza ko iyo porogaramu ugiye gushyiramo ivuye ahantu hizewe.

Ibyo byari ibintu 5 muri byinshi wagakwiye gukora umaze kugura mudasobwa nshya.

Wakunze ibyo twanditse wasangiza n'abandi.

Ufite ikibazo cyangwa inyunganizi watwandikira ahagenewe ibitekerezo.

by crook in Tech News How To

Uburyo wareba ibyo mugenzi wawe akoresha Telephone ye muburyo bw’ibanga

Niba umugore wawe, umugabo wawe cyangwa inshuti yawe ikoresha telephone ya android cyangwa iOS. nshobora kukwereka uburyo wamenya ibyo akoresha telephone ye niba umukekaho imico mibi harimo nko kuguca inyuma n’ibindi.

Muri  iyi nkuru turarebera hamwe ama software wakoresha kugira ngo ubashe kwinjira muri telephone ya mugenzi wawe cyangwa inshuti yawe ibi byose turabigeraho twifashishije ama porogaramu amwe n'amwe hari ayishyurwa ndetse n'atishyurwa ariko twe turi bukoreshe atishyurwa muri aka gace ushatse ibindi birenzeho washobora kwigurira ayo maporogaramu ukabasha kuyakoresha.

Icyitonderwa: ibyo tugiye kurebera hamwe uyumunsi byose bikozwe muburyo bwo kwigisha ibyo turibukore nubikoresha muburyo butari bwiza ushobora kuzabihanirwa, nubihanirwa ntuzikome ktimez.com.

Icyambere nambere gisabwa ni uko ugomba kuba wabona telephone y'uwo ushaka kuzajya umenya amabanga ye byibuze iminota kuva kuri 3-5 .

Ubundi kuri iyi si ya rurema hari ama porogaramu menshi ashobora gushyirwa muri telephone yawe akaba yakwiba amabanga yawe harimo message za whatsapp, message zisanzwe, email n’ibindi byinshi. Hari n'abayakoresha muburyo butari bwiza.

Amwe mu ma porogaramu ndetse n'ama websites ashobora gukora ako kazi tubonye haruguru harimo:

Phonesheriff

MySpy

TheTruthSpy/

Hari ama porogaramu menshi cyane ku isi ashobora kuba yabona ibyo ukoresha telephone yawe akaba yanabika ibyo ukora byose icyo asaba ni uko ugomba kuba ukoresha Telephone irimo OS ya Android cyangwa iOS.

Gusa muri ayo menshi ikunzwe gukoreshwa cyane ni FlexiSpy. Iyi yo ireba byinshi cyane harimo nko kugenzura mudasobwa, telephone ititaye aho waba uri aho ariho hose .

Ibyo ni bimwe mu byo FlexiSpy yabasha gukora ushatse kureba byinshi wajya ku rubuga rwabo maze ukirebera.

Ariko muri ibyo byose uzabona kuri iyo website ntabwo ariko byose ubikoresha keretse iyo watanze ifatabuguzi ringana amadolari $349 ku mwaka ndetse n’amadollari $199 mu gihe kingana n’amezi atatu.

Ikindi ugomba kumenya ni uko muri ariya ma porogaramu yose twabonye yose ataboneka kuri Playstore cyangwa Apple Store. Ayo wapfa gusangaho ni nko kukwereka aho nimero ya telephone uhamagaye iri cyangwa aho umwana wawe aherereye mu gihe afite telephone n’ibindi akenshi ama porogaramu nk'ayo akora ibintu bisanzwe wayasanga kuri PlyaStore.

Ingero Harimo nka:

Mobile Location Tracker

GPS Phone Tracker Pro

Aya ma porogaramu yo icyo akora ni ukureba aho telephone iherereye ntakindi gihambaye yagufasha.

Kugira ngo ugire byinshi ukora bigusaba gushaka ya ma porogaramu yishyurwa ashobora kuba yasoma ubutumwa bugufi, email, kumviriza ibiganiro n’ibindi byisnhi.

Mbere y'uko dutangira nagiraga ngo nongenre ngire ibyo mbibutsa.

1. Ugomba kuba ufite telephone y''uwo muntu ushaka kuneka kandi ukaba ufite ubushobozi bwo kuba wamanura iyo porogaramu ukanayishyiramo ni ukuvuga ko ugomba kuba wamarana nawe igihe kingana n’iminota iva kuri 4-5.

2. Ugomba kuba ufite murandasi kubera ko iyo porogaramu uba washyize muri iyo telephone ivana ibintu byose abitse kuri iyo telephone ikabijyana kuri server yayo, nui kuvuga ko mugihe wayishyize muri telephone y’umuntu utajya yigurira Data aho ndakeka ntakintu ibi byazagufasha.

3. Rimwe na rimwe hari igihe Wafatwa ukabihanirwa.

Muri iyi nkuru twe turakoresha Porogaramu yitwa TheTruthSpy. Iyi porogaramu ubusanzwe iragurishwa ariko ba nyir'ukuyikora babanza kuguha amasaha agera kuri 48 kugira ngo ubashe kuyigerageza mbere y'uko uyigura.

1. Manura TheTruthSpy

Mbere y'uko dutangira neza reka tubanze turebe ibyo iyi truthspy yakora:

1. Kuba yareba aho uri gukoresha telephone aherereye(GPS tracking)

2. Gusoma Email

3. Record Call

4. Gusoma ubutumwa bwa whatsapp n'ubundi butumwa bwose

5. Kugenzura ibyo ushakisha ukoresheje browser

6. Kureba amafoto

Ibyo ni bimwe iyo porogaramu ya ThetruthSpy yabasha gukora .

Ushaka kuyimanura urajya ku rubuga rwabo unyuze kuri iyi link/

Urabona ahanditse Download(Free 48Hours) uhakande ubundi uyimanure.

2. Kora Install y'iyo Porogaramu

Mbere y'uko dushyira iyi porogaramu muri telephone hari ibintu tugomba kubanza guhindura kuri iyo  telephone  muri Security Settings.

Ubusanzwe android iyo wayiguze muri settings haba hemeje ko ama porogaramu agomba kujyamo ari ama porogaramu aba avuye PlayStore gusa kandi twe porogaramu tugiye gushyiramo ntabwo ariho ivuye bivuze ko tugomba kubanza kubihindura.

Kuri android kugira ngo dushyiremo iyo porogaramu bidusaba kujya muri Settings>Security>Tukareba ahanditse “Unknown Sources“


Nurangiza gerageza umanure ThetruthSpy hano  uhite uyishyira muri ya Telephone ya mugenzi wawe .

Imaze kumanuka uyikandeho nurangiza ukurikize ibisa n'ibi biri kuri iyi foto ikurikira hasi .

Ubu kuba Installation irangiye yifungure iragusaba kuyihuza na konti ya Email yawe cyangwa ukaba wafungura indi. Kugira ngo nyiri telephone atamenya icyabaye wagasubiye muri Security ukarebako ibintu wabisubiza uko wabisanze, Nurangiza unajye aho wamanuriye ya porogaramu ubundi uyisibe, Ikindi cyiza cy'iyi porogaramu ni uko ushobora kuyihisha umaze gukora Login.


3. Jya muri Control Panel yayo

Ubu ubwo tumaze kuyishyira muri Telephone, dushobora kuba twagenzura Telephone twifashishije website. Kubera ko porogaramu twayishyize muri Telephone ubu ibintu byose yabishyize kuri Server ubu dushobora kubibona tunyuze muri account twakoze. Ushobora kugera muri dashboard unyuze aha


Aha uzashyiramo email yawe na password ukoresha, nurangiza kuzishyiramo uzahita ubona Dashboard isa n'iri kuri iyi foto iri hasi. Mugihe iyi ari Version y’ubuntu ibintu byinshi hano ntabwo bikora byose byakora ari uko uyiguze, icyo iyi yatwereka harimo nka SMS zose zoherejwe n'izakiriwe, abo uwo muntu yahamagaye ndetse n'abamuhamagaye n'utundi duke.


Ubu ushobora kureba ubutumwa bugufi yohereje ndetse n'ubwo yakiriye, ukareba aho aherereye, abamuhamagaye ndetse n'abo yahamagaye na auto Answer ituma ushobora kumviriza ibiganiro yaba ari kugirana n’abandi yifashishije telephone.

Icyitonderwa: Nk'uko nabibabwiye tugitangira Ibi mbibagejejeho mu buryo bwo kubereka ko hari byinshi wakora wifashishije Telephone ndetse na porogaramu runaka(ni kumpamvu zo kwiga). Nubikoresha mu buryo bunyuranyije n’amategeko cyangwa ukabikora nyiri telephone atabizi akaza kubimenya akakujyana mu nkiko ntuzarenganye Ktimez.com


Wakunze ibyo twanditse wasangiza n’abandi kandi hari ikibazo, cyangwa inyunganizi ushaka kutugezaho watwandikira ahagenewe ibitekerezo.

by crook in How To

Uburyo wafungura mudasobwa yawe ukoresheje Telephone yawe ya Android cyangwa iPhone

Abenshi muri twe dufite mudasobwa murugo cyangwa mudasobwa ngendanwa(Laptop) ariko uburyo abenshi dukoresha dufungura mudasobwa zacu ni uburyo bwo gukoresha Username ndetse na Password. Ese wabifata ute nkubwiye ko hari ubundi buryo bufite umutekano uhambaye ushobora gukoresha ugaha mudasobwa yawe umutekano usesuye uwo mutekano wa mudasobwa yawe ushobora kuwugeraho wifashishije Telephone yawe.

Ubu buryo tugiye kurebera hamwe buzagufasha kuba wafungura mudasobwa yawe wifashishije Telephone yawe yaba ikoresha Operating System ya Android cyangwa ikoresha iOS, aho ukoresha mudasobwa biba bitamusaba gushyiramo username ndetse na password muri mudasobwa ye kugira ngo abashe kuyifungura ahubwo hano icyo azaba asabwa nuko azaba afite telephone ye gusa akabasha gufungura mudasobwa ye mu buryo bworoshye nta ngorane.

Ushobora kuba aribwo bwambere ubonye ijambo Operating System bikagutera kwibaza uti ese rishatse kuvuga iki?

Operating System ni porogaramu y'ibanze igenzura buri kimwe gikorerwa muri mudasobwa si mudasobwa gusa kubera ko ama telephone menshi dukoresha muri iki gihe nayo afite Operating System. Ntabwo tugiye kuvuga kuri Operating System uyu munsi ahubwo reka dukomereze ku buryo wafungura mudasobwa yawe ukoresheje telephone ikoresha Operating System ya Android cyangwa iOS.

Kugira ngo tubashe gufungura mudasobwa yacu twifashishije Telephone hari ibyo dusabwa:

1. Porogaramu yitwa Rohos Logon Key ijya muri mudasobwa
ndetse ikaba inafite version ya Telephone.

2. Mudasobwa

3. Telephone ikoresha Android/iOS

4. Network 

Ibyo tubonye haruguru niba ubyujuje reka dutangire.

1. Manura Porogaramu Yitwa Rohos Logon Key

Mbere na mbere banza umanure porogaramu yitwa Rohos Logon Key uyishyire muri mudasobwa yawe. Ushaka kuyimanura wakurikira iyi link( Kanda hano uyimanure). Umaze kuyishyira muri mudasobwa yawe unayifunguye uzahita ubona ifoto isa n'iyi ikurikira.


2. Umaze kubona ifoto isa n'iyo tubonye haruguru hita ukanda ahanditse Options, hazahita hafunguka akandi kadirishya uhitemo ahambere urabona amahitamo menshi nurangiza uhitemo  Mobile Phone (Android/iOS).


Aho ubona hari utumenyetso tw’umutuku nawe ubikore bise neza nk'uko ubona aho bimeze kuri iyo foto iri haruguru .

Kanda OK urahita usubira ku ifoto isa niyo twatangiriyeho(1) maze ukande ahanditse SetUp Authentication key utaragira byinshi ukora banza ufate telephone yawe umanure porogaramu ya Rohos Logon Key  urebe neza ko yageze muri Telephone yawe  nurangiza usubire kuri mudasobwa yawe .

3.Twafashe telephone yacu tumaze gukanda ahanditse Authentication Key umaze kuhakanda urahita ubona ifoto isa n'iyi ikurikira.


Umaze kubona ifoto isa n'iyi jya iruhande rw’ibumoso aho hari akamenyetso gasa n’umutuku ushyiremo password wari usanzwe ukoresha harahita haza ayo ma QR code(ibimenyetso birimo umukara n’umweru) nurangiza ufate telephone yawe ufungure ya porogaramu  washyizemo yitwa Rohos Logon Key ukande ahanditse Scan Rohos Logon QR Code. Bazahita bagusaba kumanura akandi ga porogaramu kitwa Barcode Scanner ukamanure nurangiza nikamara kugera muri telephone yawe, wongere ufungure Rohos ukande ahanditse “Scan Rohos Logon QR Code.” Ubundi unyuze camera ya telephone yawe kuri biriya bimenyetso bisa n'umukara n’umweru .

Umaze kuyascanna bazaguha ubutumwa busa n'ubwi'yi foto ikurikira.


Kanda ahanditse OK. 

Ubu nibwo buryo bwiza wakongera umutekano wa mudasobwa yawe ukoresheje Telephone yawe ngendanwa. Wakunze ibyo twanditse wabisangiza n’abandi.

Hari ikibazo cyangwa inyunganizi ufite wabitugezaho ubinyujije ahagenewe ibitekerezo.

by crook in How To

Niba ukora ibintu bikurikira ucomeka telephone yawe urimo urayica bikomeye.

Amakosa amwe n'amwe tugenda dukora dutekereza ko ari amakosa mato atateza ikibazo bamwe muritwe tuyakora tutaziko ashobora gutuma battery ya telephone yacu ishiramo umuriro vuba vuba.

Ushobora kuba urimo gusoma iyi nkuru ukoresheje smartphone yawe ariko ukaba ukunze guhura n’ikibazo cy’umuriro biturutse k'uko battery ya telephone yawe itabasha kuba yabika umuriro mu gihe kirekire akaba ariyo mpamvu nka Ktimez tugiye kubagezaho amakosa arindwi abantu benshi bakunze gukora mugihe bacomeka ama telephone yabo bikaba intandaro yo kwangiza battery za telephone zabo.



Ushobora kuba urimo kwangiza battery ya telephone yawe niba ukora aya makosa akurikira tugiye kurebera hamwe.
Ikintu wagakwiye kumenya ni uko ama battery ya telephone dutunze yose aba afite umubare ntarengwa ni ukuvuga igihe ashobora gucomekwa kiba kigenwe kitarenga. Iyo icyo gihe cyageze n'iyo telephone yawe yakwerekako yuzuye uyikura kuri charger nyuma y’umunota umwe ikaba irazimye  Iyi ikaba ari imwe mu mbogamizi abakoresha telephone bakunze guhura nayo cyane, ariko hari uburyo bwinshi wagakwiye gukoresha kugira ngo battery ya telephone yawe ibashe kumara igihe kinini ifite ubuzima cyangwa ububasha bwo kuba yabika umuriro, kugira ngo bigerweho rero hari amabwiriza ukwiye gukurikiza. Ushobora kwibaza uti ese amabwiriza nakurikiza ku bwoko bumwe bwa battery ni nayo nakoresha ku bundi bwoko?

Ubusanzwe kugeza ubu hariho ubwoko bwa battery butatu: hari battery zo mu bwoko bwa Nickel Cadium, Lithium polymer n'izindi zikoze muri Lithium-Ion. Buri bwoko bufite uburyo ukwiye gukurikiza kugira ngo battery yawe ijye ibika umuriro igihe kirekire!

Kuri uyu munsi ntabwo tugiye kurebera hamwe ubwoko bwa battery ahubwo reka turebere hamwe amakosa amwe n'amwe tujya dukora mu gihe ducomeka telephone yacu bikangiza battery, ibi bikurikira ni bimwe ukwiye kwirinda gukora mu gihe ushaka kugira battery ibika umuriro igihe kirekire, ushobora kuba wakoraga aya makossa utari uziko yakwangiza battery ya telephone yawe ariko nyuma yo gusoma iyi nkuru urabasha kwihitiramo ibyo wakora ndetse n'ibyo wareka.

Tudatinze reka duhere ku mwanya wambere. 

1. Ntuzategereze ko Battery ya telephone igera kuri 0%

Bamwe na bamwe bakoresha telephone bagategereza ko telephone ishiramo umuriro ikagera ku 15- 10% bakabona kuyicomeka cyangwa bagakomeza kuyikoresha mpaka izimye. Niba ukoresha battery yo mu bwoko bwa Lithium-ion ukaba ukora iryo kosa ukwiye kubireka kubera ko Battery yawe itagakwiye gushiramo umuriro bene ako kageni ngo ubone kuyishyira ku muriro.
Kubera ko ama battery yo muri ubwo bwoko biyananiza cyane bikaba iyo bikozwe kenshi biyagabanyiriza ingufu zo kubika umuriro , ikindi wakamenye kuri ubwo bwoko bwa battery ni uko ataribyiza kuba wacomeka telephone ikagera 100% utarayikuraho kubera ko umuriro mwinshi ushobora kwangiza battery cyane cyane zo mu bwoko bwa Lithium-ion.
Ubundi ama battery yo mu bwoko bwa Lithium akora neza iyo afite umuriro uri mukigero cya 30-80% ni ukuvuga ko mugihe ukoresha telephone ifite battery yo mubwoko bwa Lithium wagakwiye kuyishyira kumuriro igeze kuri 30%.

2. Ntugapfe gucomeka telephone yawe aho wiboneye utitaye ku bushyuhe

Si ibanga twese turabizi ko iyo smartphone icometse ishyuha cyane ariko benshi muritwe ibyo ntabwo tubyitaho. kuri bamwe bafite ama telephone afite ama cover byakabaye byiza ko mbere yo kugira ngo ucomeke telephone yawe ukuraho cover kugira ngo battery nayo ibashe kwinjiza umuriro ku bushyuhe busanzwe ifite ubuhumekero. Ku bakoresha ibikoresho bya Apple(iPhone) ibabuza kuba bacomeka telephone zabo mugihe hari ubushyuhe bukabije cyangwa buri hejuru.
Muri rusange birabujijwe kuba washyira igikoresho Electronic cyose kuri temperature iri hejuru ya 35% cyane cyane iyo bigeze kuri battery biba ibindi bindi .
Bivuze ko mu buryo bwo guha amahoro battery ya telephone yawe unayiha ubwawe wagakwwiye kureba aho ugiye gucomeka telephone yawe ubushyuhe buhari ndetse ukanakuraho cover kugira ngo ugabanye ubushyuhe kubera ko kurekeraho cover ni nko kwambara ikoti mu gihe cy'izuba nawe urumva uko bigenda.

Tudatinze mu magambo reka dukomereze ku mwanya wa 3

3. Ntugacomeke telephone yawe igihe kirekire .

Iri riri mu makosa abatunze telephone iyo ariyo yose bakora. Gufata telephone yawe ukayishyira ku muriro ukaza kuyikuraho mugitondo ubyutse nyuma y'amasaha agera ku munani. ubundi keretse uryamye amasaha ari hagati ya 2 kugeza kuri 3 naho niba uyicomeka amasaha arenze ayo menya ko battery yawe urimo urayangiza utanasize telephone yawe.
Kubera gucomeka battery yawe amasaha angana atyo bigeraho ikuzura igakomeza kwakira umuriro bikaba byayinaniza, byanayigabanyiriza igihe yamaraga ikora idacometse. Bikaba byanashyira ubuzima bwa nyirayo mu kaga kubera ko ishobora guturika igihe itabasha gukomeza kwihanganira uko kunanizwa.

4. Ntugakoreshe charger ubonye iyo ariyo yose

Niba uri umwe mu bakoresha smartphone uziko aho wagera hose hari Micro-USB utabura umuriro. Ibi ni byiza ariko ntabwo bivuze ko Telephone yawe ikorana n'ama USB abonetse yose. Kubera ko hari igihe ukoresha USB imwe wacomeka telephone yawe ikuzura mu minota mike wakoresha indi ukaba wamara umunsi wose ucometse telephone yawe itaruzura, iki kikaba ari ikimenyetso cyerekana ko ama USB yose atabasha gukorana na Telephone zose. Mu gihe ugiye guhitamo charger uzajya ukoresha byaba byiza ukoresheje charger yazanye na telephone yawe cyangwa ukareba ihuza na Telephone yawe kubera ko uko ugenda ukoresha ama Charger atandukanye ari nako amenshi muriyo adafite ubushobozi bwo kuba yakuzuza telephone yawe ibi nabyo biri mu byangiza battery ya telephone yawe.

5. Ntugakoresha battery ishaje

Ushobora kuba uri umwe mu bantu bakunda gutunga telephone z’ubwoko bumwe ugasanga ufite nka telephone 4 z’ubwoko bumwe muri ayo ma telephone yose ufite amwe mu ma battery yayo akaba yarangiritse ni ukuvuga akaba atakibika umuriro ariko ukaba ukiyafite, nyuma ukaza kugura indi telephone nubundi yo muri ubwo bwoko ukavuga uti ese mugihe ncometse Telephone yanjye sinakura battery imwe muri ya ma telephone ashaje nkaba nayikoresha muri iyi nshya nguze?

Igisubizo ni oya! uzirinde gukoresha Battery ishaje muri Telephone yawe nshya kubera ko bishobora kwangiza battery ya telephone yawe.

6. Guhitamo ahantu habi akaba ariho ucomeka telephone yawe.

Niba uri umwe mu bantu batita aho bashyize ama telephone yabo igihe acometse menya ko ari amahano akomeye.
Nk'uko twabibonye haruguru buri bwoko bwa Battery bufite urugero rw’ubushyuhe bukoreraho ndetse n'aho wagakwiye gushyira telephone yawe.
Birabujijwe kuba washyira telephone yawe ahantu hashyushye cyane cyangwa ahantu hakonje cyane kubera ko ibi bishobora kwangiza Telephone yawe ndetse na battery idasigaye. Ntiwagakwiye gushyira Telephone yawe ahantu hari ubushyuhe buri hejuru ya 35%.

7. Ntugacomeke telephone yawe kuri mudasobwa

Abenshi muri twe hari igihe tubona umuriro ugiye kudushirana  kandi nta charger dufite ariko wagendanye USB na mudasobwa ugahita uvuga uti USB nayo yashobora kuncomekera Telephone yanjye ariko mu gukora ibi ujye ubikora mugihe ubona ntayandi mahitamo ufite kuberako umuriro USB Port ya mudasobwa itanga aba ari muke cyane kuburyo kugira ngo telephone yawe yuzure neza bitwara amasaha agera kuri ane cyangwa atanu ibi nabyo bikaba iyo bikozwe igihe kirekire bishobora kwangiza battery ya telephone yawe.

Reka turekere aha ubutaha tuzarebera hamwe ibyo wakora kugira ngo ukomeze kugira battery ibika umuriro.

Wakunze ibyo twanditse wasangiza n’abandi. Ufite ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo wagishyira ahagenewe ibitekerezo !

by crook in How To

Telephone zihenze kurusha izindi ku isi.

Ushobora kuba ufashe telephone yawe mu ntoki cyangwa ukaba urimo gusoma iyi nkuru ukoresheje Telephone bikagutera guhita
wibaza uti nanjye ngura Telephone yanjye Yarampenze cyane? 
Bikaba byagutera guhita wibaza iki kibazo Kigira kiti ese ama telephone ahenze aka kageni hari ikindi kintu gihambaye akora kurusha andi? Igisubizo kuri icyo kibazo ni Oya!

Aya ma Telephone turi bubone kuri uru rutonde amenshi muri yo akora akazi kamwe n'ako Telephone yawe ikora amwe muri yo
ashobora kuba akora ndetse n’ibiri munsi yibyo iyawe ikora!
Ntabwo guhenda kw’aya ma Telephone biterwa  n’ibyo akora ahubwo ahenda bitewe n’ibyo aba akozemo (outside view). Tudatinze mu magambo rero reka duhere ku mwanya wa cumi .


10 – iPhone Princess Plus ($170,400)




Iyi telephone ifite “Princess” mu izina ryayo ariko yaba nziza no ku bagabo. Kugira princess mu izina ryayo hari abahita bumva ko ari telephone y’igitsinagore ariko siko bimeze kubera ko hari n’abagabo bayitunze. Kuba yarafashe izina rya Princess bituruka ku buryo ama Diyama (Diamant/Diamond) ayikoze  agaragara inyuma ni ukuvuga uburyo ayizengurutseho ndetse n'uko akase ameze nk’umwamikazi wambaye ikamba. Iyi Telephone rero ikaba yarakozwe n’umunya Australia inakorerwa mu ruganda  rwa Apple(yakozwe na kompanyi ya Apple), ikaba igura akayabo k’ibihumbi $170,400 by’amadollari uyashyize mu manyarwanda akaba ari miliyoni  zisaga ijana na mirongo ine n'esheshatu n’ibihumbi ijana na mirongo itatu na bitandatu(143.136.000 Frw).


9 – Savelli Smartphone ($250.000)




Nta kintu gihambaye Savelli igira cyatuma ihenda cyane ariko bitewe n'uburyo igaragara inyuma akaba aribyo bituma ihenda cyane. Iyo ubonye Diyama yakozwemo zidahagije biba bishoboka ko bakongera bakagushyiriraho indi cover kandi ibyo iyo bikozwe nibwo n’igiciro cyayo kigenda cyiyongera. Iyi Savelli ikaba igura akayabo k’ibihumbi magana abiri na mirongo itanu by’amadolari ($250,000), angana n’akayabo ka miliyoni Magana abiri na cumi  z’amanyarwanda (210.000.000 Frw).


8 – Black Diamond VIPN Smartphone ($300.000)


 

Black Diamond VIPN Smartphone ntabwo ari telephone igaragara neza cyane inyuma kuri iyi list  ariko ikaba iza ku mwanya wa munani muri telephone zihenze kuri uru rutonde . Kuri iyi telephone hariho Diyama ebyiri zonyine imwe iri inyuma n'indi iri hejuru. Iyi  ikaba igura akayabo k’ibihumbi Magana atatu by’amadolari($300,000) akaba asaga miliyoni Magana abiri na mirongo itanu n’ebyiri  (252,000,000 Frw).


7 – Vertu Signature Cobra ($310.000)


Vertu Signature Cobra ishobora kuba ariyo ifite uburyo igaragaramo butandukanye n'ubw'andi ma telephone agaragara kuri uru rutonde, akaba ari ama telephone umunani yonyine y'ubu bwoko yakozwe ku isi, iyi telephone ifite inzoka iyizengurutseho imbere. Ibi byagutera kwibaza uti ese ni gute telephone iriho inzoka yahenda aka kageni? Hano ntabwo ari inzoka ikoze muri plastic cyanga Cover yayo ikoze muri Plastic nk'andi ma telephone dutunze iyi nzoka iriho yo ikoze muri Zahabu akaba ariyo mpamvu iyitera guhenda.
Vertus ikaba Igura akayabo k’ibihumbi Magana atatu na cumi by’amadollari y'amanyamerika($310,000) akaba angana na miliyoni Magana abiri na mirongo itandatu n'ibihumbi Magana ane by’amanyarwanda(260,400,000 Frw). 

6 – Gresso Luxor Las Vegas Jackpot ($1 Million)


Iyi ikaba ari imwe muri eshatu zakozwe na Gresso. Iyi yo nta mitako ihambaye iyiriho nk’iyo twabonye kuri Vertu Signature. Ayo ma Telephone yakozwe uko ari atatu uzayabonaho umutako ukoze muri zahabu ku gice cy'inyuma. Ariko ushobora kwibaza uti ibi nibyo byatuma igura miliyoni y'idolari yose? Kuri kiriya giciro icyo bagukorera bakoherereza indege ikakujyana Las Vegas aho bakinira Imikino y'amahirwe nawe ugakina ijoro rimwe ntacyo bakwishyuza. Iyi ikaba igura miliyoni imwe y'amadollari($1 million) asaga miliyoni Magana inani na mirongo ine z’amanyarwanda (840,000,.000 Frw).


5 – Diamond Crypto Smartphone ($1.3 Million)


 

Iyi ntabwo ari telephone igaragara neza kurusha izindi ku isi ariko ufite iyi telephone nta mpamvu n'imwe yatuma uhangayikishwa n’amabanga yawe wibitseho kuko ifite umutekano uri hejuru. Igituma igura akayabo kangana gutya ntabwo ari ukubera umutekano gusa ahubwo iyi ikaba izengurutswe na Diamant. Ikaba yarakozwe na Peter Aloisson. Ubundi iyi Telephone itariho  diamant urabona ko itagura ama dolari arenze nka $12 ariko bitewe n'ibyo tubonye haruguru yibitseho ikaba igura kariya kayabo kose.


4 – GoldVish Le Million ($1.3 Million)


Le Million ishobora kuba muri telephone zigaragara neza kuri uru rutonde.Iyi Telephone ikaba ikozwe na 18 karat za zahabu, karat 180 za Diamant. Iyi telephone ikaba yaraguzwe bwa mbere n’umushoramari w'umurusiya mu mwaka wa 2006.

3 – iPhone 6 Amosu Call Of Diamond ($2.7
Million)


Uwaba atunze cyangwa yarabonye iPhone aziko inyuma habaho ikirango cya kompanyi  ya Apple gisa na pomme barumyeho, icyo kirango aho wakibona hose uhita umenya ko icyo gikoresho gifite icyo kirango cyakozwe na Kompanyi ya Apple. Igituma iyi telephone ihenda nuko kiriya kirango cy’inyuma gikoze muri Diyama  yonyine itavangiye. Ntabwo ari iyo Diyama y'inyuma yonyine igize iyi telephone ahubwo ikaba iriho n'utundi duce dusaga 600 twa Diyama.

2 – iPhone 5 Black Diamond ($15.3 Million)



Kubazi cyane ibyerekeye icukurwa ry’amabyuye y'agaciro baziko Diamant y'umukara ariyo Diamant idapfa kuboneka ku isi, ibi bikaba ari bimwe bituma iyi Telephone ihenda cyane kubera ko mu gukorwa kwayo yakozwe hifashishijwe iyo Diyama y’umukara. Stuart Hughes akaba yarabashije kubona imwe aza kuyishyira no muri telephone ye. Bishobora kugutungura cyangwa ntibigutungure ariko iriya Diamant y’umukara yakoreshejwe muri iyi Telephone ntabwo ariyo yonyine iri kuri iyi telephone.
Diamant, imiringa n’andi mabuye y'agaciro ari kuri iyi telephone byose ubikusanyije bikaba ari nabyo bituma ihenda aka kageni.
Umushoramari w’umushinwa amaze kubona ibyo mugenzi we w’umurusiya yakoze nawe yahise yumva yatunga iyi telephone kugiti cye. Akaba yarahamagaye Stuart Hughes amubwira ko ashaka iyi telephone ko iba imwe ku isoko ikanagurishwa uwo mushinwa, akaba yarayiguze kuri millioni cumi n'eshanu z'amadollari($15 Million) akaba agera kuri milliyari cumi n'ebyiri na millioni Magana atandatu z’amanyarwanda. 

1 – Falcon SuperNova Pink Diamond iPhone 6 ($95.5 Million)


Abakoze iyi telephone ni abahanga cyane kubera ko batuma ugira intumbero yo kugura iyi telephone. Icyo bigusaba gusa ni ukubishyura asaga $95.5 million kuri iyi telephone. Ifite ikintu itandukaniyeho n'izindi kuko ikozwe na 18 karat za zahabu ziboneka ku gice cy'imbere  ariko bikagutungura ubonye Diamant ikoze igice cy'inyuma. Ikaba inagizwe na diamant ya pink ariko tugiye kuri iyi telephone ikaba inafite ubundi bwoko buhendutse ushobora kubona kuri miliyoni mirongo ine n'umunani n'ibihumbi Magana atanu by'amadolari($48.5 million).


Twandika iyi nkuru twabashije kureba aho idolari rya Amerika ryaguraga amafaranga Magana inani na mirongo ine y’amanyarwanda. Tukaba tumaze kurebera hamwe Telephone icumi zihenze kurusha izindi ku isi tukaba tubonye ko zigura amafaranga menshi kurusha n'inzu cyangwa imodoka.

Wakunze ibyo twanditse ntiwibagirwe gusangiza inshuti n’abavandimwe. Hagize ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo watwandikira ahagenewe kujya ibitekerezo.

by crook in Tech News

Dore ibyo wakora igihe telephone yawe yaguye mu mazi.

Ese uzi abantu bangahe bataye telephone zabo mumazi? Ushobora kuba uzi umwe, benshi cyangwa nawe bikaba byarakubayeho ariko se waba warakomeje gukoresha telephone yawe nyuma yuko iguye mu mazi? Reka uyu munsi turebere hamwe ibyo wakora mugihe uhuye n'ibyago ugata telephone yawe mumazi.

Urutonde rukurikira rurakubwira ibyo wakwirinda gukora igihe telephone yawe iguye mu mazi.

1.Ntuzakomeze gucana telephone yawe

Mugihe ugize ibyago telephone yawe ikagucika ikagwa mu mazi yari izimije cyangwa igahita izima byaba byiza uyirekeye uko iri. Ushobora kuyikura mu mazi ugasanga icanye ako kanya ihutire kuyizimya. Kuyireka icanye bishobora gutera short circuit kubera ko amazi ashobora guhuza ibikoresho bitakoranagaho bikaba byakoranaho ni ukuvuga ko umuriro nawo icyo gihe unyura aho utari usanzwe unyura.

2.Ntugacomeke telephone yawe.

Ntuzibeshye ngo ushyire telephone yawe kuri charger cyangwa ngo uyicomeke kuri mudasobwa ukoresheje USB ushaka kureba ko irimo kwinjiza umuriro. Kubera ko umuriro unyura mu ntsinga ushobora kwangiza ibikoresho bimwe na bimwe bya telephone yawe.

3.Ntukayishyushye 

Igihe telephone yawe yaguye mu mazi ntukayegereze ku bintu bushyushye cyangwa ngo uyinyuzeho ibintu bishyushye hejuru kubera ko bishobora gushongesha sudire(solder) n'ibindi bikoresho. Cyane cyane uzirinde kuyishyira muri mucrowaves kuko ibi byo byatera impanuka ikomeye cyane.

4.Ntukayizunguze 

Kuzunguza cyangwa gukubita telephone yawe kukiganza bishobora gutuma amazi ajya n'ahandi atari yakagiye bikaba byakongera umubare w'ibikoresho byangiritse.

5.Ntugaterere iyo.

Telephone yawe yaguye mu mazi kandi yanatose sibyo? Igisubizo cyawe ni Yego! ariko ntibivuze ko ugomba guhita uyijugunya. Nka ktimez ntabwo twakugira inama yo guhita ujugunya telephone yawe ahubwo reka turebere hamwe ibyo twakora kugira ngo turebe ko twakongera gukoresha telephone yacu yaguye mu mazi. Ushaka kumenya ibyo twakora komeza wisomere.

Noneho reka turebere hamwe ibyo twakora kugira ngo turebe ko twakomeza gukoresha telephone yacu

Ukimara kubona ko telephone yawe iguye mu mazi ako kanya ihutire guhita uyikura mu mazi. Mbese ni ukuvuga ngo niyo byaba ari ugushyira ukuboko kwawe mu bwiherero. Kubera ko uko wihutira kuyikura mu mazi ni nako amahirwe yo kuba yakongera gukora yiyongera.

Zimya telephone yawe.

Igihe ukiyikura mu mazi ugasanga irimo kwaka icyiza ni uko wayizimiriza ku gihe kubera ko bigabanya umubare w'ibyangirika.

Tandukanya ibice bimwe na bimwe

Telephone yawe ishobora kuba iri muri amwe mu ma telephone avamo battery ako kanya hita uyikuramo. Telephone yikure muri cover yayo, kuramo memory card ukuremo na Sim card nurangiza buri kimwe ucyumutse ukwacyo ni ukuvuga kimwe ntaho gihuriye n'ikindi.

Yikureho covers ndetse na case 

Kuyikuraho cover ndetse na case yayo ibi bituma amazi adakomeza gukwirakwira ahantu hose bikanatuma telephone yumuka vuba.

Koresha isume igihe uhanagura ibyo bikoresho.

Biba byiza iyo ukoresheje isume mugihe urimo guhanagura ibikoresho byagezweho n'amazi kubera ko isume idapfuka ni ukuvuga ko ugomba kwitondera gukoresha impapuro z'isuku cyane cyane papier hygienique kubera ko igira udusigazwa(ipfukagurika). Wowe uzakoreshe isume. Hanagura buri hantu hose ukeka ko hageze amazi nurangiza guhanagura ibyo bikoresho uzabirekere kuri iyo sume kugira ngo amazi yose azava muri iyo telephone azagwe kuri ya sume.

Koresha vaccum cleaner 

Niba yaguye mu mazi ukabona amazi ntaho atageze byaba byiza ukoresheje vacuum cleaner kugira ngo ubanze ukureho amazi amwe. Mbere yo gukoresha vacuum cleaner fata umwanya wawe urebe ko wakuyeho ibikoresho bishobora gutakara kuri telephone yawe.

Yireke yumuke neza.

Mugihe utaratekereza kuba wayijyana kuba technicians, nibyiza ko wayireka ikumuka neza. Uburyo bwiza wakoresha ni umuceri. ushobora kwibaza uti ese umuceri uje ute?

Mugihe ushaka ko igikoresho cyawe cyaguye mu mazi cyumuka kurikiza ibi bikurikira:

Fata umufuka cyangwa envelope kaki upime uko icyo gikoresho cyawe kingana(umwanya gifata[volume]) ubundi ufate umuceri ungana n'uko wasanze igikoresho cyawe kingana inshuro eshanu ubundi ufate cya gikoresho (telephone) ugishyire hagati muri uwo muceri ubundi utegereze iminsi itanu uzabone kugikuramo. Ntuzagikuremo iyo minsi itarangiye.

Gerageza urebe ko yongeye gukora 

Nyuma y'iyo minsi gerageza uyicane nubona yatse izaba yakoze nubona itaka uzayicomeke iminota 20 nyuma y'iyo minota uzongere ugerageze kuyicana nibyanga uzayireke iminsi mike ukomeza uyigenzura ureba ko ntacyahindutse muri iyo minsi nabwo nubona ntagihinduka izaba ari iyo kongera gusubizwa mu muceri.

Ibyo byose tubonye haruguru nubikora ukabona byanze uzajyane telephone yawe aho wayiguriye bashobora kuguha ubufasha mugihe wari ukiri muri guarantee mugihe uzasanga guarantee yararangiye bashobora kuguca akayabo ariko bishobora kudahura n'uko wari guta telephone yawe burundu.

Umwanzuro: icyiza ni uko wajya ubanza gusoma ibyerekeye telephone ugiye kugura cyangwa ikindi gikoresho cyose ugiye kugura ndetse na kompanyi ugiye ku kiguriramo kubera ko muri iyi minsi hari ama kompanyi arimo kugenda akora ama telephone ari waterproof ariko hano si ukuvugako ayo ma kompanyi akora ibikoresho bitajyamo amazi ahubwo akora ibikoresho bishobora kwihanganira amazi ku rugero runaka. Ariko bitaguha guarantee ko igihe urwo rugero rwarenze, amazi ashobora kwangiza igikoresho cyawe.

Ni byiza ko wazajya ubanza gusoma uko igikoresho cyawe gikora ndetse n'uko wagifata mugihe runaka ndetse n'ibyo wagikorera igihe gihuye n'ibibazo nyuma yo kukigura.


Hari ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo wakinyuza ahagenewe ibitekerezo.

Niba wakunze ibyo twanditse sangiza n'abandi.

by crook in How To

Sim card ni iki? Ese ni ukubera iki telephone ikenera Sim card?

Ushobora kuba ufite cyangwa ushaka kugura telephone, ukaba warigeze kuyifunguraho ugakuramo battery yayo ukabona umwanya utari munini umeze nk'urukiramende usa n'ukaseho haruguru bikagutera kwibaza uti ese uyu mwanya umara iki? Ese ubundi SIM card imara iki??

Uyu munsi tugiye kurebera hamwe ibisubizo by'ibyo bibazo!

Ubundi telephone ikenera Sim card kugira ngo ibashe guhuza umuntu ukoresha Telephone na network yihitiyemo.

SIM( Subscriber Identity Module): ni kimwe mu bintu bikunze gukoreshwa n'abantu batari bake mu buzima busanzwe bwa buri munsi, Sim card ikoze muri plastic ikaba ishyirwa muri telephone kugira ngo ibashe kuba yaguhuza n'abandi bantu.

Sim card ibika amakuru yerekeye ukoresha iyo Sim muri ayo makuru ibika harimo imyirondoro ya nyiri Sim card na nimero imutandukanya n'abandi bafatabuguzi, nimero z'abandi bantu, ubutumwa bugufi n'ibindi.

Twese tuzi ko iyo ufite telephone itarimo Sim card cyangwa Sim idakora neza udashobora guhamagara, kohereza ubutumwa bugufi no kuba wakoresha murandasi. Icyo yagufasha icyo gihe ni uguhamagara 112.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese Sim card yatangiye gukoreshwa ryari?

Sim Card yagaragaye bwa mbere muwi 1992 aricyo gihe yakoreshejwe bwa mbere muri Nokia 1011, akaba ari nayo telephone ya GSM yagurishijwe ijyamo Sim card bwa mbere.

Sim card ikoreshwa iki?

Ama telephone amwe n'amwe akenera Sim card kugira ngo abashe kuba yatandukanya nyiri telephone ndetse na network akoresha.

Urugero umuntu uri muri USA ukoresha iPhone mu gihe arimo gukoresha network ya Verizon akenera Sim card kugirango Verizon imenye umuntu uri gukoresha iyo telephone ndetse inarebe uko yishyura ifatabuguzi.

Ushobora kuba warakoresheje telephone itarimo sim nyuma ukaza kubona ko ntakindi kintu gihambaye yakora uretse kuba wayitunga wiyumvira indirimbo, ugasoma ibitabo, ukareba amavideos, amafoto n'ibindi, ariko ukaba utabasha guhamagara cyangwa ngo wohereze ubutumwa bugufi.

Ama Sim card amwe afite ubushobozi bwo kuba yakurwa muri telephone imwe agashyirwa muyindi mu buryo bworoshye, ni ukuvugako ushobora kuba wari ufite telephone ishaje ukoreshamo Sim card yawe ukaza kugura indi telephone ako kanya ugahita ukura Sim card muri ya telephone ishaje ukayishyira muri telephone nshya umaze kugura ugakomeza ugakoresha sim card yawe uhamagara, wohereza ubutumwa n'ibindi.

Cyangwa ukaba warimo gukoresha telephone umuriro ukagushirana hari ibintu byihutirwa washakaga gukora wifashishije sim card kandi uri ahantu utabona aho ucomeka phone yawe nyuma ukaza kwibuka ko ufite akandi ga phone, ako kanya ushobora kuba wafata ka ga telephone ugahita ushyiramo Sim card ugahita uyikoresha ibyo washakaga kuyikoresha nta ngorane.

Sim card kandi nayo igira ububiko (Memory) bushobora kubika nimero zisaga 250, ubutumwa bugufi ndetse n'andi makuru ajyanye na sosiyete y'itumanaho wahisemo.

Mu bihugu bimwe na bimwe ama sosiyete y'itumanaho afata ama Sim card amwe agakoreshwa mu bikoresho acuruza gusan kuburyo udashobora gufata Sim card ya sosiyete imwe ngo ube wayikoresha muri telephone cyangwa ikindi gikoreshwa cy'andi ma sosiyete utabanje kuba wakwa unlockinga icyo gikoresho ushaka gukoreshamo iyo Sim card ni ukuvuga ko ugomba kugiha uburenganzira bwo kuba cyakwakira Sim card zivuye ku yandi ma sosiyete y'itumanaho.

Ushobora Guhita wibaza uti ese telephone yanjye ikeneye Sim card? 

Igisubizo ni yego ku umuntu ukoresha telephone ikoresha technology ya GSM( Global System for Mobile) , igisubizo kikaba oya ku muntu ukoresha telephone ya CDMA(Code Division multi access ).

Ni ukuvuga ko ama telephone akoresha GSM network akenera Sim card kugira ngo abashe gukora bitandukanye no kuri telephone ya CDMA yo nta Sim card isaba kugira ngo ibashe gukora.

Nk'uko twabibonye haruguru iyo ukoresha Telephone ya GSM uba ufite ububasha bwo kuba wafata Sim card wakoreshaga ukaba wayishyira mu yindi telephone ushaka ariko nayo igomba kuba ari GSM, bitandukanye no ku ma telephone ya CDMA, Sim card iba ikoranye nayo ni ukuvuga ko idashobora kuvanwa muri telephone ngo ibe yashyirwa mu yindi. Ayo ma telephone ya CDMA akoreshwa cyane mu gihugu Cya USA.

Ese Sim card isa ite?

Sim card ikoze muri plastic, igice cyayo cy'ingenzi ni integrated chip ifite ibara ry'umuringa iyo chip iba ibitse amakuru yose y'umufatabuguzi , umubare umutandukanya n'abandi bafatabuguzi bakoresha Sim card za sosiyete imwe detse n'andi ma sosiyete y'itumanaho, ubutumwa bugufi, nimero z'abantu be n'ibindi. Ibyo byose ntabwo ubasha kubibona n'amaso yawe ahubwo bigaragara iyo Sim card ishyizwe muri telephone. 

Sim card ya mbere yabayeho yari ifite ubunini bungana n'amakarita ya ATM ariko uko iminsi yagiye ishira niko n'ubunini bwagiye bugabanuka muri iki gihe ushobora kubona Sim card nto (mini Sim) cyangwa nto cyane (micro Sim)na nano Sim iba ari nto kuri micro Sim. Muri aka kanya urimo gusoma iyi nkuru ushobora kuba ufite phone yawe bikagutera kwibaza uti ese sim card yanjye ingana ite? 

Full SIM - 85 mm x 53 mm

Mini SIM - 25 mm x 15 mm

Micro SIM - 15 mm x 12 mm

Nano SIM - 12.3 mm x 8.8 mm

Embedded SIM - 6 mm x 5 mm

Ugendeye ku bipimo ubona haruguru ugasinisha na Sim card iri muri telephone yawe wahita ubona igisubizo.

Byagutera guhita wibaza uti ese ni iyihe ngano ya Sim card yajya muri telephone yanjye?

Biterwa n'uko umwanya ujyamo sim w'igikoresho ushaka kuyishyiramo ungana.

Urugero ku bantu bakoresha iphone5, 8, bakoresha nano Sim wowe ushobora kuba ukoresha mini Sim card cyangwa micro Sim.

Nihe nakura Sim card?

Ushobora kuba ushaka kwigurira telephone ukibaza uti Ese ni he nakura sim card?

Hano mu gihugu cyacu dufite ama sosiyete atatu y'itumanaho ushobora guhitamo imwe ikunogeye wumva ukunze cyangwa itanga service nziza ukaba watunga Sim card yayo.

Nta kintu gihambaye bigusaba icyo usabwa ni ukwegera abakozi ba sosiyete wahisemo ukababwira ko ushaka Sim card ubundi ugakurikiza ibisabwa ukibonera Sim card ukoresha muri telephone yawe!

Sim card Yanjye yabaye blocked!

Ubundi Sim card ikoranye ubwirinzi ikoresha irinda konti ya nyiri Sim card, bumwe muri bwo hari imibare ine izwi nka PIN( Personal identifier Number): iyo yakoreshejwe, burigihe iyo ucanye telephone yawe bagusaba kwinjizamo iyo imibare ine kugira ngo ubashe gukoresha telephone, iyo wanditse imibare itariyo baguha amahirwe agera kuri 3 yo kongera kugerageza iyo urengeje ayo mahirwe yose uko Ari 3 ushyiramo imibare idahuye n'iyo wakoresheje ufunga sim, ako kanya Sim card yawe ihita ifungwa( blocked).

Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese igihe Sim card yanjye yafunzwe(blocked ) binsaba kugura indi?

Iyo Sim card yawe yafunzwe ntabwo bigusaba kugura indi ahubwo ushobora guhamagara sosiyete y'itumanaho yakugurishije Sim card abakozi bayo bakagufasha kuba wakongera gukoresha Sim card yawe, aha niho haboneka PUK(Person unblock Code): iyi akaba ari imibare kuva kuri 4-8 ikoreshwa mugihe wibagiwe PIN wakoresheje ufunga Sim yawe.

Hagize ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo wakinyuza ahagenewe ibitekerezo cyangwa ukakinyuza kuri page yacu ya Facebook ktimez.com 

Ushobora kuba wakunze ibyo twanditse, sangiza n'abandi.

by crook in Tech News

Networking: Igice cya kabiri

Ubwo duherukanye  twarebeye hamwe network icyo aricyo n'ubwoko bwazo mu gice cya mbere kanda hano urebe ibyo twarebeye hamwe mugice cyambereUyumunsi tugiye kurebera hamwe DHCP, NAT, TCP/IP

Reka dutangirire kuri DHCP. 

Ushobora kuba uhura n'iri jambo mu gihe urimo ukoresha mudasobwa  cyangwa telephone yawe kenshi na kenshi igihe usoma inkuru  cyangwa ibitabo bijyanye na Networking. Bigahita bigutera kwibaza uti: Ese DHCP ni iki?

DHCP mu magambo arambuye ni Dynamic Host Control Protocol DHCP akaba ari Protocol itanga IP address dynamically ugenekereje ni ukuvuga ko itanga ama IP address ahindagurika mu gihe runaka, bivuze ko mu gihe urimo gukoresha mudasobwa yawe iri kuri Network runaka ikoresha DHCP icyo gihe utagira IP address imwe cyangwa ihoraho ahubwo ihora ihinduka burigihe.

Akenshi na kenshi ayo ma IP address atangwa kuri Local Area Network. Wibuke ko tuvuga kuri IP address twabonyeko dukoresha private IP iyo dukora Network(LAN)
aha ni ukuvuga ko kandi buri gikoresho nka mudasobwa, smartphone n'ibindi iyo gishyizwe kuri iyo network  kigomba gusaba IP address yo gukoresha. Icyo gikoresho (device ) cyohereza ubusabe kuri DHCP server DHCP server nayo  igatanga IP address kuri icyo gikoresho mu gihe runaka aricyo bita "lease time"..

Lease Time ni iki??. Lease Time ni igihe igikoresho cyashyizwe kuri Network runaka kizamara gikoresha IP address cyahawe, Icyo gihe (Lease Time) kigenwa na DHCP server. Kandi menya ko burigihe ushyize mudasobwa yawe kuri Network ikoresha DHCP Server uzahita ubona IP address ako kanya.

Iyo IP address uhabwa igenda ihinduka burigihe bitewe na configuration za DHCP server, ayo ma IP Address agenda ahinduka  aba ari  muri range imwe ariko ahinduka bitewe na Lease Time DHCP Server Itanga urugero ugishyira mudasobwa yawe  kuri Network mudasobwa ihita ihabwa IP address ako kanya.

Burigihe ushyize mudasobwa yawe cyangwa ikindi gikoresho cyose kuri LAN, ubona IP Address zihindagurika, ariko zigomba kuba ziri muri range imwe .(192.168.0.1 – 192.168.255.255) ni ukuvugako buri gikoresho uzashyira kuri iyi Network uzabona IP Adress iri hagati y'izo tubonye haruguru.

Reka dukomereze kuri NAT.

Ese NAT Ni iki

NAT mu magambo arambuye ni Network Address Translation ni protocol ihindura internal IP address ni ukuvuga ihindura private IP address mo public IP address .ibuka ibyo twabonye mu gice cya mbere twabonyeko private IP address zikoreshwa kuri Network ya LAN zidashobora kujya kuri murandasi kuko Private IP address aba ari rusange ni ukuvuga ko ushobora gukoresha IP Address muri Network yawe wanagera kuri mugenzi wawe ugasanga mufite IP Address zisa bitandukanye no kuri Public IP Address nk'uko twabibonye mu gice cya mbere Public IP igomba kuba ari imwe rukumbi idasa n'indi aho akaba ariho  itandukanira na private IP ziba zisa bitewe n'aho iyo network iri.

NAT yakira ubusabe buva kuri mudasobwa iri muri Private Network kugira ngo ijye kuri murandasi .NAT icyo ikora ibika IP address z'iyo mudasobwa ikayishyira muri table yayo yarangiza igahindura iyo private IP address mo public IP address za router.

ESE NAT ikintu cy'ingenzi ikora ni ikihe?

NAT ubundi ikintu cya mbere ikora ishyiraho imipaka ku ma public IP azakoreshwa na organization runaka cyangwa kompanyi bigendeye ku mpamvu y'umutekano. Ibikoresho Bikoresha NAT byakira ubusabe bwo kuba byakoresha murandasi biturutse muri Private Network. NAT icyo ikora ifata IP address y'icyo gikoresho yarangiza ikayibika muri NAT table yarangiza igafata iyo Private IP address ikayihinduramo Public IP. Ni ukuvuga ko iyo ibyo igikoresho cyari kiri muri Private Network cyasabye bibonetse ibikoresho bikoresha NAT bireba muri NAT table aho ama IP address yose ava muri Private Network abikwa mbere y'uko ajya kuri Murandasi. NAT ifata ibyabonetse bivuye kuri murandasi yarangiza ikabyohereza muri Public Network kuri cyag ikoresho cyasabye Service runaka.

Turebeye kuri iki gishushanyo kiri haruguru kirerekana ama Telephone abiri Imwe ikoresha Private IP inyuma y'iyo Router irimo Gukora nka NAT. Iriya telephone ifite IP 192.168.0.12 ikoresha Private IP address igihe iri muri LAN. Ariko iyo ishaka guhanahana amakuru yifashishije murandasi icyo gihe, iriya router izafata iriya Private IP iyihinduremo Public IP kandi muri iki gihe router izamenya aho igomba kohereza ubutumwa kubera ko hano iri gukoreshwa nk’igikoresho gikoresha NAT.

Reka dukomereze kuri TCP/IP.
TCP/IP mu magambo arambuye bisobanuye Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol aya akaba ari ama protocol akoreshwa mu guhanahana amakuru kuri murandasi(Internet). Aha ushobora kuba aribwo ubonye ijambo protocol bigahita bigutera kwibaza uti ese protocol ni iki? Protocol muri make ni uburyo bwemeranyijweho kugira ngo habeho guhanahana amakuru cyangwa kuganira dufashe nk'urugero rwa kompanyi itwara abagenzi mu Rwanda aho mugihe cyo gutangira amashuri biyemeza gutwara abanyeshuri bambaye umwambaro w'ishuri mbere yabandi. Iyo akaba ariyo protocol yabo muri icyo gihe.

Hari ama protocol menshi akoreshwa kuri murandasi harimo IP, TCP, UDP, FTP, HTTPS, POP n'ayandi menshi cyan, ariko buri protocol iba ifite amategeko ayigenga. TCP/IP aya niyo ma protocol y'ingenzi akoreshwa kuri murandasi akaba ari nayo turi burebe uko akora.
TCP/IP yakozwe muwi 1978 inakurikiranwa na Bob Kahn na mugenzi we Vint Cerf, TCP/IP igena uburyo amakuru abitse, yoherejwe, yakiriwe n'uburyo ki agomba kugera aho yoherejwe.

TCP/IP packet ni iki?
Packet ni urugero rw'ibanze rwa information ni ukuvuga amakuru muri Network transmission. 

Reka turebe TCP/IP uburyo ikora: nk'uko amazina abigaragaza hano ni ama protocol abiri ahujwe ariyo TCP na IP. Internet Protocol(IP) ibwira packet aho igomba kujya n'uburyo igomba kugerayo. Ako niko kazi IP ikora, Transmission Control Protocol(TCP) yo irebako nta makosa yabayeho mu ma packets yoherejwe kuri murandasi iyo amakosa agaragaye irongera ikohereza packets ako niko kazi kayo.

Amoko atatu ya TCP/IP Protocols akunze gukoreshwa cyane kuri murandasi.

1.HTTP: ikoreshwa hagati ya web client na web server habaho guhererekanwa kw’amakuru cyangwa service umutekano wayo ntabwo uba uhanitse cyane, web client (internet browser ikoreshwa kuri mudasobwa) yohereza ubusabe kuri web server isaba kuba yareba web page runaka. Icyo gihe web server yakira ubusabe bwa web client ikohereza amakuru yose y'iyo web page yasabwe na web client.
2.HTTPS: ikora kimwe na HTTP ariko yo amakuru itanga iyatanga mu buryo bufite umutekano cyane cyane HTTPS wayikoresha mu gihe ushaka guhaha wifashishije murandasi.
3.FTP: ikoreshwa hagati ya mudasobwa ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi. Aho mudasobwa imwe yohereza amakuru ku yindi mudasobwa cyangwa ikakira amakuru aturuka ku yindi mudasobwa ako kanya.

Igice cya kabiri cya Networking kikaba kirangiriye aha ni ah'ubutaha, tukaba tuzarebera hamwe ubwoko bwa Server ndetse n'uko zikora.

Ufite ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka gutanga, andika ahagenewe kwandikwa ibitekerezo,
Niba wakunze ibyo twanditse wasangiza n’abandi.

by crook in Tech News

Linux for hackers: Igice cyambere

Aba hackers benshi ntabwo bazi cyangwa bamenyereye gukoresha linux ahubwo bakaba bafite ubumenyi bujyanye na Windows operating system na Mac. Rimwe na rimwe ukaba usanga iyi iba imwe mu mbogamizi abantu benshi bashaka kuba aba White Hat Hacker bagenda bahura nayo. Ku mpamvu nyinshi nziza rero Linux akaba ariyo Operating System wakwifashisha mu gihe ushaka kuba umu White Hat Hacker, Grey Hat Hacker cyangwa Black Hat Hacker !! Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese White Hat Hacker ,Grey Hat Hacker na Black Hat Hacker bishatse kuvuga iki?? Uyu mwanya ntabwo aribyo tuvugaho ariko tukazabikugezaho ubutaha reka dukomeze n'aka gace kambere kavuga kuri Linux.

Bavuga ko kugira ngo ube umu hacker ugomba kuba uzi byibuze ibyibanze kuri Linux Operating System. Akaba ariyo mpamvu nafashe akanya kugira ngo njye mbagezaho ibyibanze wagakwiye kumenya kuri Linux utu akaba ari uduce tuzajya tugenda dukurikirana tukubwira kubyerekeye Linux Operating System kuva kuri zero kugeza haricyo umenye (professional),White Hacker.

Nzageragerageza kureba uburyo wakongera ubumenyi mu gukoresha Linux Operating System buhoro buhoro uko uzagenda usoma kugeza uburyo uzaba ushobora gukora Hacking.

Muri uru ruhererekane tuzakoresha Linux Operating System Yitwa Kali Linux n'ingero zose uzabona hano inyinshi zijyanye na Hacking Tuzazibereka dukoresheje kali Linux. Ushaka kuyimanura wajya kuri iyi link https://www.kali.org/downloads/

Mbere y'uko ntangira ndizera ko buri wese azi uburyo ushobora gushyira Operating System muri mudasobwa ye cyangwa ukaba uzi uko wakoresha Hypervisor (vmware,cyangwa virtualbox) hari utazi uko yabigenza yatwandikira kuri facebook page yacu tukazamukorera video yerekana uburyo ushobora gukoresha Hypervisor.


1. Fungura Terminal


Mugihe uri gukoresha Linux ikintu cyambere ugomba gukora ni ugufungura terminal. Muri kali linux hari aka Icon kayigaragaza kari kuruhande rw'ibumoso kandaho incuro imwe ebyiri hazahita hafunguka window isa n'iri ku foto ikurikira.

Iyo window ifungura icyitwa shell. ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese shel niki ??shell ni Command Line Interface ituma ukora ama commande amwe n'amwe cyangwa ukaba wayifashisha wandika scripts. Hari ubwoko bwinshi bwa shell ariko ubuzwi cyane akaba ari Bash Shell(Bourne Again Shell). Iyi ikaba ariyo iza muri Kali Linux ndetse n'andi ma Linux Distribution.


2. Ugomba kumenya ibijyanye na File System

Bidahuye no muri Windows Operating System, Linux Operating system yo ntabwo yerekana ama Hard Drives gusa .Linux Operating System yo uko ama File yayo ameze mbere na mbere haza icyo twita root hamwe uzasanga igaragazwa nakamenyetso kameze gutya /.
Ikaba ariyo iza hejuru y'andi ma Logical File Structure.

Urebye neza kuri iyi foto iri hejuru ya Linux File System ahabanza hariho root cyangwa /. Ariko ntuzitiranye “root” user na root(/) ya File System ibi ni ibintu bibiri bitandukanye. Hano root ni nk'ibanze ry’uko File system yubatse.

Reka turebere hamwe amwe muma sub-directories ya root icyo agenda akora  .

1./root:iyi yerekana home directory kuri buri mu super user ni ukuvuga root user:

2./etc iyi folder cyangwa directory yo ibika ama configuration yose ajyanye na linux Operating System.

3./home iyi ikaba ari home directory y’umu user runaka.

4./mnt aha niho andi ma file systems aba abitse

5./bin niho ama binaries cyangwa executables muri Windows  aba abitse.

6./lbb aha niho ama libraries files aba ari.

Reka tube turekeye aha tuzagenda tubona icyo amwe n’amwe agenda akora mu tundi duce cyangwa izindi nkuru zizagenda zigera kuri uru rubuga.

3. PWD

Rimwe na rimwe iyo ukoresha Linux harigihe wumva ushaka kumenya aho urimo gukorera ni ukuvuga kumenya directory urimo, Uyimenya wifashishije Command ya  PWD(Present Working Directory ) iyi yerekana aho urimo gukorera .ibi biba byiza iyo ushaka kuva muri directory imwe ujya muyindi bigufasha kumenya aho uva.

Fungura terminal yawe nk'uko twabibonye mbere andikamo  “pwd” command ukuyeho “” uhite ukanda Enter uzahita ubona aho uri gukorera.

Uko ubibona Linux ihise ituzanira /root itubwira ko turi muri directory ya root user .iyo tuba turi muyindi directory yari guhita izana izina ry'aho turi .

4. whoami

Linux burigihe ntabwo isaba ko ukora login uri Root user burigihe ushobora no gukora Login uri umu user usanzwe .ugereranije na window iyo tuvuze root user muri linux aba ari nka Administrator muri windows Operating System .Bikaba Atari byiza kandi ko burigihe ukora login uri root kuko ushobora kuba waba hacked n'umuntu runaka akaba yakwangiza ibyawe byose bikaba ari byiza ko ugomba gukora login nk’umuser usanzwe .
Rimwe na rimwe rero ushobora kwibagirwa uko wakoze login niba walogginze nka root cyangwa nk’umuser usanzwe rero kugira ngo umenye uko waloginze hifashishwa “whoami” command.

Iyo nza kuba na logginze nka user usanzwe ,system yari guhita izana izina ry’uwo mu user.

5. cd 

cd command icyo ifasha ituma ubasha kuva muri directory ujya muyindi ukoresheje terminal akaba ari bumwe mu bumenyi bw'ibanze ugomba kuba ufite mu gihe ukoresha Linux Operating System.
Bijya gusa neza nko muri windows command Line, naho dukoresha cd (change directory)command dushaka guhindura directory ,Uko cd command ikoreshwa fungura terminal>andika cd usige akanya ukurikizeho izina rya Directory ushaka kujyamo.

Urabona ko twahise tujya muri /etc directory nk'uko ubibona ushobora kureba ko aribyo wandika command twabonye haruguru “pwd”.

ushobora gukoresha cd ugasiga umwanya ugakurikizaho / (cd /) ushaka kujya kuri root level.
cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri directory ibanziriza iyo urimo ushobora gukoresha kali>cd .. wabikora wandika cd ugakurikizaho utudomo tubiri.
cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri level ebyiri zabanjye nukuvuga inyuma ho kabiri bitewe n'aho uri
koresha kali>cd .. .. cyangwa cd ../..

6. ls command

Ushobora kuba uri muri directory runaka ukaba ushaka kureba ibintu byose biyirimo ushobora gukoresha “ls” command ukuyeho “” ukareba ibitu byose biri muri iyo directory.
Kali>ls

Uko ubibona kuri iyi photo iri haruguru ama files na directory byose byagaragaye ukoresheje ls command.
Ariko ushobora kuba ushaka amakuru ahagije ajyanye nabyo nko kumenya igihe byahinduriwe ,uko bingana, permissions, na owner. Ushobora kongeraho -l switch nyuma ya ls kugira ubone ibyo tumaze kuvuga.
Uko bikorwa fungura terminal andika ls usige akanya wandike –l (ls –l)

7. help

Ubundi urebye buri command muri linux igira ubufasha(help) ni ukuvuga ko ushobora kubona uburyo ikoreshwa urebye muri file yayo yerekana uburyo ikora ndetse n'uko ikoreshwa. Help command ikwereka uburyo ushobora gukoresha no gusobanukirwa uburyo command ushaka gukoresha ikora n'uko wayikoresha .
Urugero nshobora kuba nshaka uburyo nakoresha wireless cracking tool nshobora kwiyandikira iyo command runaka ngakurikizaho –help ikanyereka uko ikoreshwa.

Kali >aircrack-ng –help

Ubundi buryo ushobora kwifashisha ushaka kubona uko commande runaka ikoreshwa ushobora kwifashisha -h cyangwa ? kugira ngo ubone ubufasha bujyanye na command iyo ariyo yose . Nshobora kuba nshaka kumenya uko nakoresha wordpress vulnerabilitie scanning tool (wpscan)
Nahita nandika wpscan -h muri terminal ako kanya mpita mbona uko wpscan ikora n'uko nayikoresha

Hano ho urabonako nakoresheje minus sign( - ) cyangwa dash imwe 

8. man

Icyiyongera kuri help switch ku ma commands menshi n'ama applications ushobora kubona information zerekeye application runaka cyangwa command runaka ugiye kuri manual page yayo. Urebye buri Linux igira manual page ya buri application na command .
Ushobora kubona manual wanditse muri terminal man commands imbere ya command ushaka kureba manual page yayo cyangwa application :
Urugero: Fungura Terminal wandike man ukurikizeho commande ushaka (man aircrack-ng)

Iyi izahita ifungura manual page ikatwereka information zose kurusha izo twabona dukoresheje -help.

Aka kakaba ari agace kambere twareberaga hamwe. Ndakeka buri kimwe cyagaragaye neza hagize icyo ushaka kudukosoraho cyangwa kutwunganira watwandikira kuri facebook page yacu. 
Ushobora kuba wakunze ibyo twanditse kora share usangize n’abandi.

by crook in Hacking

Ibintu 10 bitangaje Utari uzi kuri Google !!

Uyumunsi ntibyakorohera kuvuga ibibera kuri murandasi utifashishije Google!!! Sibyo? Ushobora guhita wibwirako uzi byinshi ku byerekeye kompanyi ikomeye cyane ku isi yitwa Google ariko Google ifite byinshi ibitse ndetse n'udushya twinshi utabasha kumenya utacukumbuye.

Niba ushaka kumenya duke muri byinshi ifite biteye amatsiko komeza wisomere iyi nkuru.

Ubundi kuva Google yashingwa yagiye ikora udushya twinshi akaba ariyo mpamvu uyumunsi nashatse ko tureba muri bike byaranze iyo kompanyi kuva yashingwa kugeza ubu.

1. Ese wari uziko izina bwite rya kompanyi ikomeye Google ryari "BackRub"

Iri zina Google niryo yiswe Mu 1996 kuberako Larry Page na Sergey Brin bahereye kuri porogaramu yakoreshwaga muri server y'ikigo bigagaho cya Stanford yarebaga ama websites link kugira ngo irebe uburyo website runaka ikoramo .

Nyuma iryo zina ryaje kuvaho BackRub iba Google tuzi ubu ikaba yarahawe izina Google mu 1997 

2. Ese wari uziko Mu 1999 abashinze Google bashatse kuyigurisha kuri miliyoni imwe y'amadolari ariko ntibyigeze bibaho ...

Ibyo byabaye Mu 1998 ubwo Larry Page na Sergey Brin bashatse kugurisha kompanyi yabo kuri Altavista kuri miliyoni imwe yamadolari kugira ngo babashe gukomeza amashuri Altavista ikaba yaranze kuyigura. Kubatazi Altavista ni search engine yashinzwe mu 1995 ikaba yaraje kugurwa na Yahoo Mu 2003.

3. Ese wari uziko iyo Umukozi wa Kompanyi ya Google apfuye afite umugore cyangwa umugabo bashakanye, uwo bashakanye ahabwa kimwe cya kabiri cy'umushahara uwapfuye yahabwaga mugihe kingana n'imyaka icumi.

Kandi iyo uwapfuye yari afire abana bakiri bato ni ukuvuga batarageza ku myaka 19 buri umwe aba agenewe amdolari 1000 buri kwezi kugeza agize imyaka 19.

4. Ese wari uziko iriya button ubona igihe ufunguye Google igaragara kuruhande yanditseho " I’m Feeling Lucky" Google iyitangaho akayabo kangana na miliyoni $110 z'amadollari kubera ko ihagarika ama ads kuvuga ihagarika ibintu byose bijyanye n'iyamamaza ni ukuvuga ko iyo wayikanzeho nta bintu bijyanye no kwamamaza ubona.

5. Wari uziko mugihe kingana n'umunota umwe Google yakira ubusabe burenga miliyoni 3 bki nkuko twabibonye munkuru igira iti haba iki mumunota umwe kuri murandasi.

6. Tariki 16 kamena 2013, kompanyi ya Google nibwo yaje guhagararaho igihe kingana n'iminota itanu bikaba byarabayeko uko murandasi yakoreshwaga byaje kugabanuka kukigero kingana na 40%

7. Wari uziko Google Map ireba uburyo murandasi irimo gukoreshwa ikoresheje uburyo ibikoresho bikoresha Android birimo kugenda mumihanda.

8. Muri 2003 nibwo Google yashinze Calico akaba ari kompanyi ishinzwe kureba uburyo umuntu yabaho ubudapfa ibinyamakuru byinshi byanditse kuri iki kintu bigira biti * Google Is Launching A Company That Hopes To Cure Death* bamwe bati ni imikino ariko kompanyi yo irahari kandi irakora.

9. Wari uziko Google ifite uburyo bugera kuri 200 yagusubizamo ikibazo cyose wayibaza mugihe kingana n'isegonda rimwe!!!

10. Wari uziko rimwe Steve Jobs yigeze guhamagara muri Google ababwirako inyajwi ya kabiri ya *O* muri logo ya Google itagaragara neza muri iPhone bikaba byarabaye muri 2008.

Ibi byari ibintu icumi bitangaje utari uzi kuri kompanyi ya Google

Niba wakunze ibyo twanditse Kora share usangize nabandi. 

by crook in Tech News

[Breaking News]: igihugu cya China cyahagaritse WhatsApp

Application ikunzwe cyane n'abantu batari bake muri iyi minsi ku isi yose ariko kuri ubu ntabwo ariko bimeze mu gihugu cya China si ukuvuga ko yanzwe n'abatuye icyo gihugu ahubwo abakuru cyangwa abagenzura murandasi yi'cyo gihugu nibo badakunze iyo Application ikoreshwa mu kohereza ubutumwa bugufi, amavideo, ndetse n'imiziki ...

Aka kanya urimo gusoma iyi nkuru Application ya WhatsApp yafunzwe bidasubirwaho mu gihugu cya China.

Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese ibi birashoboka cyangwa ese nibyo ????

Kubera ko mu gihugu cyacu dufite ubwisanzure bwo gukoresha murandasi tukaba twanakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga nta kibazo. Ntabwo ariko no mubindi bihugu biba bimeze.

Ubundi china ifite amateka manini cyane kuberako yatangiye kera ishaka guhagarika uburyo abantu bakoresha murandasi basura ama websites cyane cyane izihuriraho imbaga nyamwinshi ni ukuvuga imbuga nkoranyambaga ndetse n'ama websites menshi yo mu bihugu by'iburengerazuba yifashishije porogaramu icunga uburyo murandasi ikoreshwa ni ukuvuga ireba amakuru asohoka mu gihugu ndetse n'ayinjira mu gihugu( Great Firewall).

Iyo porogaramu cyangwa service yakoreshejwe ihagarika ama websites agera ku 176 harimo nka Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram n'izindi service nyinshi Google itanga mu bice binini bya China .

Ariko kano kanya WhatsApp yiyongereye kuri ariya ma social media twabonye haruguru yahagaritswe muri China .

Kugeza ubu ntabwo haramenyekana iminsi WhatsApp izamara idakoreshwa muri icyo gihugu.

Itsinda ry'i Paris rigenzura imikoresherezwe ya WhatsApp mu gihugu cya China, igihugu kikaba cyahagaritse uburyo abakoresha WhatsApp kuba bakohereza ubutumwa bugufi bakoresheje WhatsApp mubindi bihugu baturanye (basangiye imbibi).

Ubundi WhatsApp yatangiye guhagarikwa kuwa gatatu w'icyumweru gishize ubwo aba users bagaragagaza uburyo WhatsApp irimo kugenda ihagarikwa mu gihugu cyabo.

Ariko muri uku kuyihagarika aba user bamwe na bamwe bakomeza kuyikoresha bifashishije VPN(Virtual Private Network ) ishobora kuba yaca mu rihumye Firewall y'igihugu cya China .

Ushobora guhita wumva ko byakorohera buriwese gukoresha VPN kugira ngo akoreshe WhatsApp ariko ntabwo ariko bimeze kubera ko mu mezi make ashize nibwo igihugu cya China cyagaragaje ko Gukoresha VPN Ari icyaha gihanirwa mu gihe uyikoresheje utabifitiye uburenganzira kubera ko China yasabye buri kompanyi yose itanga service ya VPN ko igomba kwiyandikisha kuri leta .

Muri uku kubuza abatuye igihugu cya china cyo cyumva abaturage bakoresha nka Wechat .

WhatsApp cyangwa Facebook kugeza ubu nta kintu barabivugaho .

Kurundi ruhande ariko ntabwo byashimisha nka nyiri WhatsApp ndetse na Instagram yabujijwe gukora mu gihugu cya China.

Uko bigaragara kompanyi ya Facebook ikaba yibasiwe mu gihugu cya China kuberako ubu icyo isigaranye ni App yifashishwa mu gusangiza amaphoto yitwa colorful Balloons ,ikaba yarashyizwe ku mugaragaro mukwezi gushize muri China .....

Niba wakunze ibyo nanditse kora share usangize nabandi

by crook in Tech News

[AI]:Imirimo 10 abantu bashobora kuzabura kubera ama Robots...

Inzobere nyinshi zagaragaje ko amarobots azafata 30% y'imirimo abantu basanzwe bakora mu mwaka wa 2025, bikaba byarahamijwe n'umuyobozi wa Department ya Engineering wa Google wavuzeko mu mwaka wa 2029 amarobots azaba afite ubumenyi buruta ubw'abantu.

Ikindi cyiyongeyeho kandi nuko ayo ma robots azakuraho imirimo yakorwaga kera akaba yakora indi mirimo mishya cyangwa akaba yakoreshwa mu kwagura iyo mirimo yindi.

Ikibabaje kurusha ibindi niu ko amarobots azahabwa inshingano zose nk'iz'umuntu usanzwe icyiyongeraho ni uko amarobots yo atazajya agira umunaniro n'ibindi byajyaga bigaragara ku bantu nko gukererwa n'ibindi.

Reka turebere hamwe imirimo icumi amarobots ashobora kuziba abantu mu minsi iza. Uru rutonde dukoze rwerekana imirimo icumi gusa hari indi myinshi cyane nuko ariyo twabaye duhisemo.

1.Abayobozi b'ibinyabiziga (Drivers) 

Ushobora kuba urimo gusoma iyi nkuru wibereye mu modoka ugiye kugera aho uviramo, ibyo biragusaba kubwira umuntu ukuri imbere akabwira umutwazi ko hari umuntu uri buvemo cyangwa ukaba umwicaye iruhande ukamubwira uti Ku cyapa gikurikira ndasigara!!!!!

Mu minsi iri i mbere ndakubwiza ukuri ko ibyo tubonye haruguru bitazongera kubaho ..niba ukunda gusoma inkuru zijyanye n'ikoranabuhanga cyangwa ukaba ukunda kumva amakuru ubu hagezweho kuba hakoreshwa imodoka zitwara cyane cyane ama kompanyi akomeye cyane arimo kubishyiramo ingufu urugero naguha Google ubwayo ifite amamodoka yitwara kuri ubu ntabwo arahabwa amazina ariko bakunze kuyita (Google Self Driving Cars). Reka tujye kumwanya wa2 ..

2. Abahagararira n'abunganira abandi mu mategeko (Lawyers)

Kuri uyu mwanya wa kabiri turahasanga umurimo wo guhagararira abandi mu mategeko. Tuziko kugira ngo ube umwunganizi mu by'amategeko ushoboye ugomba kuba warasomye ibitabo by'amategeko byinshi kandi ubyumva ariko uko isi igenda itera imbere mu bijyanye n'ikoranabuhanga ni nako hagenda haboneka ibyasimbura cyangwa ibyambura abantu imirimo bakoraga. Byagaragajwe ko mu myaka iri imbere amarobots azabasha gusoma cyangwa kugenzura ama document agera kuma miliyoni mu gihe azaba yitegura urubanza ni ukuvuga ko mu myaka iri imbere tutazajya tuburanirwa n'abantu cyangwa ngo tubone umubare w'abacamanza benshi kuko ubushakashatsi bwakorewe muri Michigan State University bwagaragaje ko robots imwe ishobora kuburanisha imanza zirenga eshanu kandi bwerekana ko 71% y'ibyavuye mu manza zaburanishijwe n'ayo ma robots byari byo ubwo ni ugutegereza tukareba Ibizakurikira.

3. Abasesenguzi mu by'imari (Financial Analysts) 

Nk'uko twabibonye ku bacamanza n'abahagararira abandi mu mategeko, ubundi ububasha n'ubushobozi bwo kubika no gukwirakwiza umubare munini wa data niyo ntumbero y'isi y'ahazaza aricyo bitwerekeza ku isi y'amarobots ..

Abantu benshi bakora imirimo ifite aho ihuriye n'icungamutungo bakunda guhura n'ibibazo bimwe na bimwe harimo gusinzira mugihe cy'akazi , kutagira experience ihagije mu bijyanye n'ako kazi n'andi makosa agiye atandukanye akorwa n'ikiremwa muntu, amakompanyi akomeye yaje kubonako ayo makosa agenda akorwa n'abantu ashobora kuzabageza ku gihombo mu myaka iri imbere akaba ariyo mpamvu ngo bazifashisha amarobots kugira ngo abafashe muri ako kazi.

4. Itangazamakuru (Journalism) 

Akazi k'ubunyamakuru nako gashobora kuzakorwa n'abantu bake muminsi iri imbere. Abantu benshi bagaragaje ko aka kazi ko bitazapfa gushoboka ko amarobots atwara akazi k'abanditsi b'ibitabo ndetse n'abanditsi basanzwe kubera ko aha amarobots ashobora kwifashisha umumtu kugira abashe nko kwandika ibitabo ...

Ariko ku rundi ruhande nk'inkuru zijyanye n'umupira , Technology , kogeza umupira w'amaguru n'ibindi bishobora kuba byakorwa n'amarobots .

5. Kumenyekanisha ibikorwa kuri internet (Online Marketing) 

Ku bantu b'abanditsi cyangwa abagurisha ibintu bifashishije murandasi, kwiga uburyo bwo kwamamaza bukurura abaguzi ndetse n'abagurisha bisaba imyaka kugira ngo umuntu abimenye neza bikaba byanaguha akazi mu ma kompanyi akomeye kugira ngo ujye uyamamariza wifashishije imbuga zayo. 

Byagaragaye ko mu minsi izaza amarobots azaba afire ubushobozi bwo gukora ako kazi mu buryo buyoroheye.

6. Delivery System 

Ushobora guhita wibaza uti Delivery System nii ki???

Delivery System ni uburyo ushobora kugura ikintu mu isoko bakakikugereza iwawe ..urugero nka Fast Food iyo utumijeho ibyo kurya wibereye ku kazi mu minota mike ubona umukozi wabo abikuzaniye aho uri utiriwe ujya aho bakorera.

Uko technology igenda itera imbere ni nako ibintu bigenda bihinduka; tukiri kuri delivery System byagaragaye ko hashobora kuzifashishwa za drones zasimbura abo bantu bakoraga ako kazi.

7. Amafarumasi n'ibijyana nayo (Pharmaceuticals)

Robotics pharmacy irimo kugenda yiyongera ariko nubwo irimo kugenda itwara imirimo abantu bakoraga ibihugu ikoreshwamo byagaragaje ko ingaruka abantu bahuraga nazo mu gihe bahawe imiti itajyanye n'indwara barwaye zagiye zigabanuka ibi bikaba bigaragaza ko imyaka iri imbere tuzajya duhabwa imiti n'amarobots.

8. Astronauts 

Kugeza kuri ubu nta robots irabasha kujya mu cyogajuru, ariko muri iyi Minsi NASA ifanyije na kompanyi ikomeye mu gukora amamodoka izwi ku izina rya General Motor mu gukora robonaut izaba ikoresha android technology .

Robonaut2 izaba ikorana n'abagenda mu byogajuru .

Robonaut2 izaba inabafasha imirimo imwe n'imwe harimo nko gukora amasuku n'ibindi..

Kuri ubu Robonaut2 ikaba yaratsindiye NASA invention of the Year. Ni ukuvugako Robonaut2 ariyo NASA yavumbuye uyu mwaka .

9. Abasirikali (Soldiers) 

Igiteye ubwoba cyane kandi kizaba mu gihe gito ni uko amarobots azatwara akazi abantu batari bake . Duhere mu gihugu cyacu urebe umubare w'abantu bari mu ngabo z'igihugu ndetse na police ubundi uwusimbuze ama robots umbwire abantu babura uwo mwanya.

10. Abakora imirimo y'ubwubatsi (Construction Workers) 

Imirimo y'amaboko akenshi niyo irimo kugenda isimbuzwa amarobots, tugiye ku bwubatsi noneho imirimo yakorwaga n'abantu kera ubu hari ibikoresho byabasimbuye urugero nko kumena beto, guhereza n'ibindi byinshi...

Iyi nimirimo 10 ishobora kuzatwarwa nama robots mu myaka irimbere.

by crook in Tech News

[Networking]: Igice Cyambere

Uyumunsi reka turebere hamwe icyo aya magambo(Network,Nat,DHCP,Ports) ashatse  kuvuga ndakeka atarubwambere waba yabonyeho.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese Network Niki?!?

Network muburyo busanzwe ushobora kuvuga uti nibintu byinshi bifite aho bihuriye ibyo nibyo.ariko tugiye muri computer science Network ni imashini ninshi nibindi bikoresho birihamwe kugirango bihanahane amakuru.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese nibiki ngomba kuba mfite ngo nkore network nziza.

Ugomba kuba ufite ibi bikurikira:

1.Imashini(computers)

2.wires(Ethernet cables) cyangwa wireless

3.IP address nibindi.....

Hari ubwoko bubiri bwa IP address hari(Private IP na Public IP ) .

Aha ushobora kwibaza uti ese Private IP zitandukaniyehe na Public IP.?!

Private IP ni IP address zikoreshwa nkigihe urimo ukora network yomurugo kwishuri nahandi dukoresha Private IP address iyo dukora network zacu bivuzeko Private IP zishobora gusa ushobora gukoresha IP runaka nkurugero(192.168.0.4) kuri mudasobwa yawe yomurugo wajya gusura nincuti ugasanga na we yakoresheje IP address nkiyo wakoresheje kuri mudasobwa yawe.

Icyitonderwa nubwo public IP address zishobora gusa ntibivuzeko wakoresha IP address imwe kuri mudasobwa ebyiri ziri muri network imwe.

Ese ubundi dukenera private IP ryari:public IP zikenerwa iyo dukora network yacu tutagiye gukorsha murandasi.

Reka dukomereze kuri Public IP address:


Public IP ni iki?!?

Public IP ni address ifatwa nigikoresho cyose gikoresha murandasi urugero( mudasobwa,smartphone,frigo,tevision nibindi byinshi) ikindi ugomba kumenya public IP zo ntizijya zisa public IP uhabwa ntiba isa niyundi iba Ari imwe kuri buri gikoresho.

Tuvuye kuri IP address reka tujye kuri network .

Hari ubwoko bwinshi bwa network Kandi ntibipfa koroha kumenya kuzitandukanya ariko uyu munsi turarebera hamwe ubwoko bumwe nabumwe bukunzwe gukoresha .

Gutandukanya network ubundi bigendera kungano yamudasobwa ikoresha,ubuso irimo,nibindi.

Zimwe mungero za network tugendeye kungano ya zamudasobwa nukuvuga ubwinshi naho ziba ziri (geographic area)

1.Personal area network(PAN)

2.Local Area Network( LAN)

3.Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)

4.Wide Area Network (WAN)

Reka dutangire tureba murimake izi network uko zikora:


1.Personal Area Network (PAN)

PAN nubwoko bwanetwork buba buri munyubako yumuntu runaka,umushinga ,cyangwa urugo .ishobora kuba iri mubiro cyangwa aho utuye.

 PAN ubundi iba igizwe nimashini imwe cyangwa nyinshi,telephone, nibindi bikoresho...

Ubu bwoko bwa network ushatse wanabwita Home Area Network .

Ago bahera bayisanisha na HAN nukuberako ushobora kuba ufite imashini yawe imwe na modem ukaba wasangiza abandi bo murugo Bose network icyo gihe network iba irigucungwa numuntu umwe nukuvuga mudasobwa yawe ariko irigukoreshwa nibikoresho byinshi.

Ushobora kwibaza uti ese iyi network yadufasha iki?!

Ibyo iyi network yadufasha nibyinshi harimo:

Mugihe waruri mucyumba kitarimo printer kandi ushaka guprintinga ushobora kohereza iyo document mucyumba korimo printer ubundi ukagaprintinga.

Ushobora gukura amafoto warufite kuri telephone yawe ukayashyira kuri mudasobwa.

Ushobora kureba film online ninindi...


2.Local Area Network (LAN)

LAN iba igizwe namudasobwa ebyiri cyangwa nyinshi ahantu hamwe ishobora kuba Ari ibiro birimunyubako ahantu .LAN ikoreshwa mugu sharing resources nka printers nibindi.

LAN ubundi kugira ibeho cyangwa ikore ntibisaba ibikoresho bihenze hasabwa imashini ,Ethernet cables ,hubs cyangwa switches akenshi abantu bakunze gukoresha Ethernet cables kuberaumuvuduko numutekano wayo ariko bidakuyeho ko hari nabakoresha wireless bakora LAN.

LAN yubakwa ahantu kugirango abantu barimurako gace babashe guhanahana amakuru ,documents,nogukugira ibikoresho bimwe nabimwe bahuriyeho nka printers nibindi ...... Ariko ntibarenga aho hantu .

Urumva nibintu byoroshye ariko ntibivuzeko umuntu umwe nava nko muri iyo office akajya hanze akaba afite document ashaka gu printing bizakunda ?!oya ntabwo bizakunda kuberako azaba yagiye inyuma ya network mwakoze.


3. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

MAN iba igizwe namudasobwa nyinshi zishobor kuba zikwirakwiye umugi wose,College cyangwa Campus .

MAN iba arinini kuri LAN tuziko yo iba itarenga inyubako imwe ariko MAN yo tugendeye kuri configuration ishobora kugera ahantu hangana nokuva kuri 1km-10 km .MAN ikaba ikoreshwa muguhuza am a LANs kugira akore network mini.

Iyo iyi network yakoreshejwe muri campus ifata izina campus area network (CAN)


4.Wide Area Network (WAN)

WAN yo ifata ahantu hanini cyane nkurugero ishobora gukwira igihugu cyose cyangwa isi yose.

WAN ishobora kuba igizwe nutu network duto ,nka LANs na MANs ubundi murandasi nirwo rugero ruzwi rwa WAN.

PAN na LANs izi nizo bita private networks kuvugako guhererekanya amakuru kuba murizi network ntibisabako bigera kuri murandasi biguma biri private .

Reka turekere aha ubutaha muri networking part2 tuzarebera hamwe ibi bikurikira(DHCP,NAT,TCP/IP).

by crook in Tech News

Kuri internet haba iki mu munota umwe!?

Umunota umwe ugizwe n'amasegonda mirongo itandatu yumvikana ko ari macye, ariko mu isi y'ikoranabuhanga ayo masegonda ni menshi cyane dore ko ku isi hose haba habaye ibintu byinshi bishoboka kuburyo butangaje. Mu mezi make ashize byagaraye ko Facebook ifite abantu barenga miliyari ebyiri bayikoresha buri kwezi bivuze ko mu mezi yose ashize uko wafatamo kose wasanga abarenze 25% ku isi bakoresha Facebook nibura rimwe mu kwezi! Ushobora kumvako 25% Ari umubare muto ariko reka tugereranye : fata stade amahoro ubusanzwe ishobora kuba yakira abantu basaga ibihumbi makumyabiri na bitanu maze ufate uwo mubare uwukube n'ibihumbi mirongo inani maze ubwo umubare uribubone uraba ujya kungana cyangwa uri munsi w'abantu babasha gukoresha Facebook mu kwezi. Uyumunsi rero tugiye kurebera hamwe ibikorerwa kuri murandasi mu gihe gisaga umunota umwe. 

Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe bwagaragaje ko abasaga ibihumbi magana cyenda(900,000) babasha gukoresha Facebook buri munsi mu kwezi kumwe ubwo niba warabashije gufungura Facebook yawe mu kwezi kwashize nawe uri umwe mu bantu bagize uriya mubare.

Mu masegonda mirongo itandatu gusa, kubera ko umubare w'abakoresha murandasi uba ari mwinshi cyane ntabwo biba ari ibintu byoroshye kureba uko ibintu byagiye bikorwa hifashishijwe murandasi buri kwezi. Reka noneho turebe uko umunota umwe ungana mu bikorerwa kuri murandasi.

  • Mu munota umwe gusa hifashishijwe website cyangwa porogaramu yayo, amafoto asaga 42.200 ashyirwa kuri Instagram.
  • Mu munota umwe kandi akayabo k'amadolari $751,522 aba akoreshejwe mu kugura no kugurisha hifashishijwe murandasi.
  • Mu munota umwe abakoresha Snapchat banyuzaho snaps 1.8 millions.
  • Kuri Tinder ho, hakorwa swipes 990,000 mu gihe kingana n'umunota umwe gusa.
  • Google yo, mu munota umwe gusa ishakishwaho amakuru runaka inshuro 3.5 millions
  • Mu munota umwe, Youtube irebwaho amashusho agera kuri 4.1 Millions
  • Kuri Twitter naho habasha kunyuraho tweets zigera kuri 452,200 buri munota.

Ifoto ikurikira igaragaza neza byinshi mu bikorwa cyane mu munota kuri internet tugakomeza tubisobanura hasi


Ubutumwa bugufi milioni cumi n'esheshatu(16 Millions Text Message) buroherezwa: ni ukuvugako mugihe kingana n’amasegonda mirongo itandatu habaho guherekanywa ubutumwa bugufi bungana na miliyoni cumi n'esheshatu hakoreshejwe whatsapp n'andi maporogaramu abasha kohereza ubutumwa bugufi.

Google(3.5 Millions Search Querries): ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mumezi ashize bwagaragaje ko ku bakoresha Google m ugihe kingana n'umunota umwe haba hashatswe ibintu bisaga miliyoni eshatu nigice ni ukuvuga ko mugihe kingana n'umunota ku isi yose Google isabwa ubufasha bungana n'izo milioni zose tubonye haruguru, bingana n'ubusabe bungana na miliyoni Magana abiri na cumi
(210.000.000 search Querries) mu isaha.

Youtube(4.1 Million Videos Viewed): Ku batazi Youtube ni urubuga ushobora kureberaho amashusho nk'imiziki n'ibindi byinshi. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe muri uyu mwaka turimo bwagaragaje ko mu gihe kingana n'umunota umwe hakoreshejwe urwo rubuga harebwa video zisaga millioni enye n'ibihumbi ijana byose ubwo mu isaha harebwa video zigera kuri miliyoni magana abiri na
mirongo ine n'esheshatu.

Instangram(46,200 Posts Uploaded): Instagram ni imwe mu maporogaramu akunze gukoreshwa cyane muri iyi minsi, cyane cyane urubyiruko ruyikoresha rusangiza amafoto n'amavideo ku nshuti zabo ndetse nogukurikira abasitari bakunda baba bakoresha urwo rubuga nkoranyambaga .Byagaragaye ko mu gihe kingana n'umunota  umwe habasha kunyuzwaho amafoto n’amavideo
angana na 46.200, ubwo mu isaha imwe habasha kunyuzwaho amafoto n’amavideo (photo and videos ) angana na 2.772.000

Twitter(452.000 Tweets sent): Ku bakoresha Twitter bazi icyo tweet bivuze niba ukoresha Facebook gereranya status cyangwa
Post ushyira ku rukuta rwawe rwa Facebook nka Tweet. Ubushakashatsi bwakozwe mu mezi ashize bwagaragaje ko mu gihe kingana n’umunota umwe hoherezwa Tweets zingana n'ibihumbi bingana na 452,000 ndetse hakabasha koherezwa Tweets zingana na 27.120.000 mu isaha.

Emails(156 millions Emails sent): Ku bakoresha Email ushobora kuba ukoresha Gmail, yahoo, ymail…. Hatitawe ku bwoko ukoresha ubushakashatsi bwakozwe uyu mwaka bwagaragaje ko mu gihe kingana  n’umunota umwe habaho guhanahana ubutumwa
bungana na millioni 156 Hifashishijwe Email. Mu isaha imwe hatambuka  Emails zingana na 9.360.000.000 kuri murandasi.

Online Shopping($751,522): Mu gihe kingana n’umunota ama dollars $751,522 (480.078.480 Rwf) akoreshwa
mu kugura no kugurisha hifashishijwe murandasi. Akabakaba 28.804.708.800 Rwf abasha kuba yakoreshwa mugihe kingana n’isaha imwe gusa.

Linkedin(120 New Accounts Created): Mu gihe kingana n’umunota umwe habasha gufungurwa konti za LinkedIn zingana na 120, ubwo mu gihe kingana n'isaha, Linkedin ibona abayikoresha (User) bashya bagera kubihumbi birindwi Magana abiri.

Facebook Messenger (15.000 Gifs sent): Ubushakashatsi bwagaragaje ko mugihe kingana n’umunota umwe habasha koherezwa ama Gifs angana n'ibihumbi cumi na Bitanu hifashishijwe porogaramu ya Facebook Messenger ni ukuvugako mugihe kingana n’isaha imwe habasha guherekanwa ama Gifs angana nibumbi Magana icyenda(900.000) mugihe abantu baganira.

Ibyo ni bimwe mu by'ingenzi biba kuri murandasi mu munota umwe gusa, ubwo uribaza akayabo gatakara iyo nk'urubuga rukomeye rugiye hasi nibura umunsi umwe. Wajyaga wibaza ibiba bikorerwa kur internet burigihe ndizera ko aha ubonye ishusho nyayo y'isi tubamo uyu munsi, bigaragara cyane ko iyobowe n'ikoranabuhanga. Mpamya neza kandi ko ibi bikugaragarije ubwinshi bw'amasegonda mirongo itandatu mu isi y'ikoranabuhanga. 

by crook in Tech News

Waba warigeze wibaza impamvu Local Disk “C” ariyo iza burigihe kuri mudasobwa yawe?

Ese waba warigeze wibaza impamvu “C” drive burigihe iza bwambere iyo ukoze Format ya mudasobwa yawe? Dore Impamvu! Igihe kinini gishize byari bikomeye ko umu User usanzwe yakwigurira mudasobwa ye bwite kuberako yabaga ihenze cyane, ariko mu isi ya none  mudasobwa ni kimwe mu bikoresho by'ibanze bikenerwa n'abantu benshi, umubare wa za mudasobwa uragenda wiyongera umunsi k’umunsi ugereranyije n'uko abakoze mudasobwa babitekerezaga.

Burigihe cyose dufunguye Windows Explorer, Tubona Disk Driver Windows iriho(Installed) burigihe iba ira inyuguti ya “C”, Ibindi bikoresho bigendanwa (External Device) nka Hard Disk(HDDs), Memory Cards byo iyo bicometswe kuri mudasobwa bifata andi mazina nka D,E,F,G ……….

Ese waba warigeze wibaza uti nukubera iki burigihe Drive iriho Operating System ya Windows burigihe iza ifite inyuguti ya “C”, aho yakabaye “A” cyangwa ukaba baribajije uti ese “A” na “B” zo zagiyehe?

Niba ushaka kumenya igisubizo komeza usome.

Ushobora kuba uri uwakera(old-fashioned) ndakeka igisubizo ukizi! Niba utazi igisubizo ndakeka utari uwa kera mo gake. Ubundi Local Disk (A) na Local Disk (B) zari zarahawe Floppy Disk Drives, ariko ibihe byarahindutse ubu dukoresha Memory Cards, External Hard Disk ndetse na cloud tukabikaho ibintu bimwe na bimwe. Muri 1960 Floppy Disk Drivers zakoreshwaga nk'ibikoresho bibikwaho ibintu kandi zikaba zarabonekaga mu bwoko bubiri bitewe n'uko zingana 5 ¼ na 3 ½ imwe yafataga inyuguti ya “A” indi igafata inyuguti ya “B”.

Muri 1980 nibwo Hard Drives yahawe inyuguti ya “C” kubera ko “A” na “B” zarizarahawe Floppy Disk, ariko muri ikigihe Floppy Disk ntizigikoreshwa akaba ari nayo mpamvu zajyanye n’inyuguti zazo arizo “A” na “B”.

Ndizera ko ubu umenye impamvu inyuguti ya “C” burigihe iza iri kuri Hard Disk yawe iriho Operating System ya Windows kandi ndizerako wakunze ibyo twandika. Kora share usangize n'abandi!

by crook in Windows

Uburyo Wakora KeyLogger Wifashishije Notepad!!

Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese Keylogger niki?

Keylogger ni imwe muburyo bwakoreshwaga kera mwisi y’aba
Hackers.

Tuvuye kuribyo ubwo buryo buracyakoreshwa!!

Mukanya ndibuze kukwereka ibyo ukeneye byose kubyerekeye
Keylogger nuburyo ushobora gukora iyawe byoroshye !!!Ntakintu kindi
wifashishije uretse mudasobwa yawe.

Ese Keylogger Niki??

KeyLogger nibumwe mubwoko bwa Virus (Spyware) yifashishwa mugufata burikimwe cyose umuntu ukoresha mudasobwa yanditse muburyo bwibanga.

Keyloggers zikoreshwa nabo bita Cybercriminals bashaka gufata amakuru yerekeye kuma banki naCredits cards. Nka Username ,Passwords ndetse nandi makuru yerekeye umuntu kugiti cye!!.

Nyuma yogufata ibintu byanditswe na Victim . Irabifata byose ikabyohereza kwanyiri kuyikora cyangwa kuri Server ikoreshwa numu hacker runaka.

Iyi script ikoreshejwe muburyo bwokwiga nuyikoresha mubundi muryo butaribwiza ukabihanirwa ntabwo ikibazo azaba aricyacu !!

UBURYO WAKORA KEYLOGGER??

Hano ngiye kukwereka uburyo bworoshye nukuvuga nuburyo bw’abatangizi(Beginners) .

Ni notepad na Script ukoresha gusa .

1.Kanda search Wandikemo Notepad  cyangwa ukoresheje Win key +r harafunguka runbox wandikemo notepad ukande Enter.

Notepad nimara gufunguka ufate aya macode ukore copy nurangiza ujye muri notepad ukore Paste.

@echo off

color b

title Login

cls

echo Please Enter Your Username And Password

cd C:\Logs

set /p user=Username:

set /p pass=Password:

echo Username="%user%"Password="%pass%"
>> Log.txt

start https://ktimez.com

exit



2. Hita ukora save yiyo notepad file uyihe izina rifite extension ya “.bat” kuri Desktop cyangwa ahandi hose ushaka!!!


3.Nurangiza gukora ibyo tubonye haruguru jya kuri “C:” drive ukoreho folder yitwa Logs !



4.Uyumwanya tugezemo rero nuwo Kugerageza ibyo twakoze haruguru tukarebako bikora neza.

Jya Aho washyize ya file ya notepad ifite extension ya “.bat” uyikandeho kabiri(Double click) hazahita hafunguka Window imeze itya ikubaza gushyiramo Username and Password.


5.nurangiza gushyiramo Username na Password uhite ujya kuri “C:” Drive muri ya folder wise Logs .Hita uyifungura urasangamo file yitwa "Log.txt' username na password wanditse muri CMD window.


Wifashishije uburyo tubonye haruguru bwose ushobora kuba wabona ikintu cyose cyanditswe kuri keyboard wifashishije batch file na notepad gusa.

Ubu buryo bwarukukwereka cyangwa kugusobanurira ho gake uburyo keyloggers zikora .


Nimba wakunze ibyo twanditse kora share usangize nabandi!!!

by crook in Hacking How To

Uburyo washyira *Hibernate* Option kuri Window10 Start Menu

Burigihe ushobora kuba ufung ibintu byose wakoraga kuri mudasobwa mbere yuko uyizimya ??

Ubwo nibwo buryo buzwi nabenshi bakoresha mudasobwa (gusavinga ibyo wakoraga mbere yuko uzimya mudasobwa).

Windows ikaba ifite uburyo byinshi ushobora kuzimyamo mudasobwa yawe harimo Sleep,Hibernate butandukanye nubundi buryo busanzwe bwokuzimya mudasobwa(Shutdown).

Muri window 10 ,Microsoft ntabwo yashyizeho uburyo bwa Hibernate kuburyo ushobora kujya kuri start>Power ngo uhite ubona Hibernate ariko bitavuzeko utabushyiraho .

Uyu munsi tugiye kurebera hamwe uko wabushyiraho kuri mudasobwa irimo window 10 uburyo bworoshye .

Mbere yuko dutangira ushobora Guhita wibaza uti ese niyihe mpamvu yatuma nshyira Hibernate option muri mudasobwa yanjye????

Hibernate :nuburyo buhuza Sleep na Shutdown ubusanzwe ubu buryo bwa Hibernate bwashyiriweho mudasobwa za Laptop .

Ubundi iyo ubwiye mudasobwa gukora Hibernate ubundi icyo uba uyibwiye nugufata ibintu byose yakoraga ikabibika igihe igiye kuzima.

Kuvuga ifata ibintu byose wafunguye yaba ama porogaramu,amadocument wari wafunguye ikabibika kuri Hard Disk.

Igihe cyose uzongera gucana mudasobwa yawe ukongera ukabona ibintu byose wakoraga bigutegereje.

Ibyo akaba aribyo Hibernate Option ikora.

Uko bikorwa:

1.Kanda kuri win button haraza search wandikemo “Power Options” uhite ukanda kuri Power Option.

Control Panel izaba ifungutse hitamo ahanditse “Choose what the power button does” izaba iri haruguru ahagana ibumuso.

Umaze kuhahitamo hazahita haza page isa niyi :

Uhite ukanda ahanditse “Change Setting that are currently unavailable”.

Hazahita haza page isa niyi ikurikira ubundi uhite wemeza Hibernate:

Urangije kwemeza Hibernate kanda ahanditse “Save change”.

Urangije gukora ibyo byose twabonye haruguru kanda Win button ujye kuri Power uzasanga hari (Sleep,Hibernate,Shutdown,restart).

Nimba wakunze ibyo twanditse kora share usangize n'abandi.


by crook in How To

Itandukaniro riri hagati ya Virus, Worms, Ransomwares, Trojans, Bots, Malware, Spyware n’izindi

Nimba usanzwe ukoresha mudasobwa cyane cyangwa uyikoresha gake , Ushobora kuba warumvise namagambo nka Viruses ,Trojan, Worms, Ransomware,Space n'ayandi .Ariko bamwe muritwe tukaba tuyita virus,tutitaye kwitandukaniro ryayo .Ushobora kuba warashatse kumenya aho ayo magambo ugend uhura nayo atandukaniye nubwo yose ashobora kwangiza mudasobwa ,telephone yawe n’ibindi bikoresho bigera kuri murandasi nahandi.Ese waba waribajije aho byaba bitandukaniye ??

Turebye Virus, Trojan zose zirimubwoko bwa porogaramu(software) zangiza mudasobwa muri make (Malware) 

Aha ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese ubundi aya magambo yavuyehe??

Murimake aya magambo cyangwa ubu bwoko bwamaporogaramu(software) ntabwo yaturutse mw’ijuru cyangwa ngo abe yarazanywe n’ibivejuru kandi ntanubwo yakozwe hagambiriwe kwangiza mudasobwa cyangwa ibindi bikoresho.

Ubundi amateka y’ibitero bya (Malware) yabayeho muwi 1949 igihe umugabo witwa Von Neuman, Yasobanuraga uburyo hakorwa porogaramu ishobora kwikoramo uduce twinshi ubwayo ariko ntabwo cyaricyo gihe yayishyize mubikorwa .Ahubwo ijambo “Computer Virus” ryakoreshejwe bwamber na Professor Leonard M.Addleman muwi 1981 igihe yaganiraga na mugenzi we with Fred Cohen.

Virus yambere yabayeho yitwaga “Brian” yakozwe nabavandimwe babiri aribo Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi bakomokaga Lahore muri Pakistan . Briam yariyarakozwe ifite intego yakwangiza Storage device zifite file system ya MS-DOS FAT ushobora kwibaza kuri file system iri nijambo tuzarebera hamwe ubutaha reka dukomeze  .Brian ikaba yari yarakozwe naba bavandimwe bagambiriya kwangiza mudasobwa za IBM .

Aba bavandimwe muri interview akoze bavuze ko bayikoze bashaka gucungira umutekano amabanga yabo.

Reka tuve mumateka twerekeze kuri Malwares akaba ari porogaramu za mudasobwa zakozwe kugira zangize mudasobwa yaba iri kuri murandasi cyangwa itariho,Ubundi hano icyo ugomba kumenya ama Malware akora aruko na mudasobwa yawe ibigizemo uruhare.

     WORMS

Worms :Izi ni porogaramu za mudasobwa (Computer Virus) zifite ubushobozi bwokwigira nyinshi ubwazo .

Intego yazo yambere niyo gukwirakwira kuri mudasobwa zose ziri kuri Murandasi binyuze mubikoresho bibikwaho ama document (Flash ,External Hard Disk,Memory Card ……) ariko ibyo byose bikorwa muburyo bwibanga kuburyo umuntu urigukoresha mudasobwa atabimenya .

Worms ntacyo zangiza kuri mudasobwa yawe ahubwo icyo zikora zigira nyinshi ubwazo zikuzuza umwanya ubikaho ibintu nkenerwa kuri mudasobwa ibi bikakaba bituma mudasobwa yawe igenda gahoro cyane .

Worms zamenyekanye cyane harimo:

SQL Blast:iyi ikaba yarashyize hasi murandasi mugihe gito.

Code Root:ikaba yarashyize hasi ama website 359,000.

                 ADWARE

Adware zo zamamariza muma porogaramu umuntu aba yashyize muri mudasobwa .Izi zoz ziza zirikumwe na porogaramu runaka zimwe dukoresha kubuntu ntanyishyu dusabwe ariko sukuvugako porogaramu zose dukoresha ntanyishyu ziba ziriho Adware .


Ariko ntabwo wahita wita Adware Malware kuberako Adware zo ntabwo zangiza mudasobwa ahubwo zo icyo zikora nukwamamariza nyirikuyikora ibyo yamamaza bikagaragara kuri muridasobwa yawe .

            SPYWARE

Spyware izi porogaramu za mudasobwa icyo zikora zicunga uburyo ukoresha murandasi yawe (Browsing way) nibindi bintu byose byibanga ufite muri mudasobwa yawe zikabasha kubyoherereza nyirikuyikra cyangwa uwayikoherereje .ibi byose zikaba zibikora muburyobwibanga .


Spyware zo akaba ariho zitandukaniye na Adware.

SPAMS

Ushobora kuba warakiriya ubutumwa kuri email utazi ubworoheje ibi nibyo bita Spams cyangwa Junk mail .Naho uburyo bwogukwirakwiza ubutumwa bumwe kuri murandasi nibyo bita “Spamming” bikaba bikorwa muburyo bwokwamamaza Junk mails ziba ziherekejwe cyangwa zifite Virus na Trojans zijya muri System ya mudasobwa yawe igihe ufunguye izo emails .



BOTS

BOTS cyangwa ROBOTS: ububwoko bwo bukora ntabufasha bwikiremwamuntu kibigizemo uruhare.

Zishobora gukoreshwa muburyo bwiza cyangwa bubi.Harabantu baba bafite imyumvire mibi bashobora gukora Bots kugira bazikoreshe muburyo bubi bangiza mudasobwa zabandi .


Bots iyo zimaze kwkwirakwiza ubwazo Bots zikora nkikiraro kizihuza nanyirazo (Servers) icunga
mudasobwa zose zatatswe na Bots akaba arizo bita Botnets:

Botnet(Robot Network) ni uruhurirane rwa mudasobwa zirimo porogaramu runaka icungwa cyangwa ikoreshwa nanyiri gukora iyo porogaramu.

Ibi nibimwe Bots zishobora gukora mugihe zakwatatse :

1.Zishobora gutwara Password ukoresha nibindi.

2.Analyzing Network Traffic

3.Open Backdoor kuri mudasobwa zatatswe.

Kugira ngo zibashe gukoreshwa haba harabayeho ubwitange numuhati w’abanyiri kuzikora .

Bots zose ntabwo ariko zangiza cyangwa ziba zifite intego yokwigarurira mudasobwa ziri kuri murandasi ahubwo hari n’ubundi bwoko bwa Bots bushaka amakuru kuma websites nko kuri Google nahandi .

    RANSOMWARES

Ransomware zo ziri mubwoko bwa Malware izi zo icyo zikora nuguhindura imikorere ya mudasibwa yawe,Zikaba zanakubuza gukora ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe kuri mudasobwa yawe.


Ikizakubwirako ari RANSOMWARE yakwatatse uzabona ubutumwa buza kuri mudasobwa yawe bugusaba kwishyura kugira ngo mudasobwa yawe yongere ikore neza.

     SCAREWARE

Nimwe mubwoko bwa MALWARE buzana ubutumwa budashira(Pop-Up) bukubwira buti There are problems found in your PC,registry error found, Computer at serious risk ,virus found.

Ubu butumwa buza bugaragara nkaho buvuye kwanyiri gukora Operating System urimo gukoresha ariko akenshi usanga atariho buba buvuye ahubwo aba aria ma web pages arimo kubwohereza.


Scareware ikintu
cyambere ikora nugushuka abantu bakoresha mudasobwa mukumanura ama Anti Virus
atujuje ubuziranenge nandi ma porogaramu menshi….

Uburyo wakoresha wirinda
SCRAWARE nukudafungura ubutumwa bupfuye kuza utazi aho buvuye neza igihe urimo
gukoresha murandasi.

                                                              

ROOTKIT

Kugira ibashe gukora ibanza yakuramo Antivirus muri mudasobwa yawe nibindi byose bicunga umutekano wayo.


Ubundi RootKit uburyo ikoramo itandukanye nuko izindi twabonye haruguru zikora yo itangira gukora burigihe ucanye imashini nukuvugako Antivirus itabasha kuyibona.

Rootkit iyo igeze muri mudasobwa yawe ituma habaho kwishyirami(install)  kwandi ma porogaramu nabandi ba user bashobora gukoresha mudasobwa yawe ntaburenganzira bahawe.

Ishobora gukuramo ama porogaramu washyize muri mudasobwa yawe harimo antivirus kugirango itabasha kuyibona.

                                                       

VIRUSES

Virus nazo zifite ubushobozi bwokwigira nyinshi ubwazo,zikangiza ama document nibindi waba ubitse muri mudasobwa yawe.

Ariko aho integer nke za Virus ziri nuko zidashobora kugira icyo zikora zitifashishije andi ma porogaramu naho ubundi wazifata nkingabo zatsinzwe igihe zitabonye andi ma porogaramu azifasha kugira zibashe gukora.

Ahantu ama Virus akunze kwifashisha kugira abashe kwangiza :

Zijya ku ndirimbo,Amafoto,amashusho nandi ma porogaramu washyira muri mudasobwa yawe.



Umaze kurangiza gusoma ibi ushobora kwibaza uti ese ni iyihe mpamvu abantu bakoze Malware.

Hano hani impamvu sizose ahubwo reka turebe nke murizo:

     1.Bamwe bazikora bagamije kugirango babashe kwigarurira mudasobwa zabandi bantu.

     2.Kugira zibashe gutwara amabanga waba ubitse muri mudasobwa yawe .

     3.Kugira babashe kubona amafaranga

     4.Kugira babashe kwigarurira mudasobwa z’abandi.

Uko wakwirinda Viruses,Worms,Rootkit,Ransomware ….

     1.Gerageza gukoresha ama porogaramu yizewe.

     2.Koresha Antivirus kandi ujye uhora uyikorera Update.

     4.Ntugapfe gushyira porogaramu ivuye ahantu hatizewe muri mudasobwa yawe.

     5.Ntukigere ufungura Link iyo ariyo yose utizeye.


by crook in Tech News

Ndabaga Micheal

@crook
...

About me

I am a software engineer with extensive experience and author and works for a ktimez.com

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