Menya byinshi ku makuru yibwe facebook na cambridge analytica

Hashize ibyumweru birenga bibiri amakuru y’ikoranabuhanga yiganjemo Saga za Facebook, aho yatakaje akayabo ka miliyari zigera kuri 60 z’amadollars ($ 60B) mu minsi itarenze itatu, hakiyongera ho ko n’umuyobozi wayo Mark Zuckerberg ari nawe wayishinze nawe yatakaje agera  kuri $ 5B, mu minsi ibiri gusa, byose bitewe no kugwa kw’agaciro k’imigabane ya facebook ku isoko ry’imari ni imigabane facebook icururizwaho ryitwa Nasqad.


Ibi byose byatewe n’iki? 
Iyi nkuru nicyo igiye kuva imuzi!

Ibi byatangiye mu cyumweru gishize ubwo umukozi w’ikigo gikora ibikorwa bya Data science (Data Science ni uburyo bwo kwiga, kuba ufite amakuru ku bantu cya ibintu menshi ukaba wayashakamo ibyo wifuza kumenya, bijya gusa na statistics gusa mu buryo buteye imbere cyane, urugero: ushobora kuba ufite amakuru n’imibare yose yerekana uko imvura yagiye igwa muri Kigali wenda guhera muri 2005 kugeza muri 2015, maze ukaba wafata aya makuru ukabasha kuba Wabasha gu predictinga uko imvura izagwa mu myaka 2 itaha, cg ukaba wamenya niba hazabaho Ibiza mu myaka iza, n’andi makuru yose ushaka kureba, nubwo ibi bitaba aribyo 100%, gusa amahirwe aba ari menshi ko ibyo wa predictinga biba hejuru ya 80% iyo ifite amakuru menshi nanone  bitewe n’ubuhanga ufite muri data science)

Tugarutse kuri iyi saga. 
Uyu mukozi yitwa Christopher Wylie wakoreraga iki kigo bita Cambridge analytica gikora akazi ka Data Science yashize hanze amwe mu makuru Atari akwiye kujya hanze, aho yavuze iki kigo  cyakoreshejwe  kugira ngo babashe gucengeza propaganda yabo maze trump abashe gutorwa.


[photo: Christopher Wylie]

Ku itariki 18 werurwe, ikinyamakuru The Guadian cyashyize inkuru k’urubuga rwabo inkuru ifite umutwe uvuga ngo “I made Steve Bannon’s Psychological Warfare tool”.

"Psychological warfare" ni amayeri yose ushobora gukoresha kugira ngo umuntu muhanganye umuhindure imitekerereze cg utume atekereza uko ubyifuza byaba binyuze  mu kumutera kumva ko adashoboye, cg kumva ko ibitekerezo bye nta shingiro bifite, n’ibindi byinshi.

Tugenekereje “I made steve Bannon’s psychological warfare” bishatse kuvuga ngo “Nakoreye Steve Bannon igikoresho akoresha ahindura abantu imitekereze”. Nubwo Wylie we mu magambo ye yivugiye ati “Steven Bannon’s psychological warfare mindfuck tool”

Steve Bannon ni muntu ki ?

Nta byinshi mvuga kuri steve Bannon gusa, yari umwe mu bakuriye ibikorwa byo kwiyamamaza kwa Donald Trump mu matora ya 2016, yari mu bantu bimbere cyane ku buryo trump amaze no gutorwa yagizwe umwe mu bari bagize akanama k'abajyanama be bakomeye, nubwo muri Kanama 2017 , amaze amezi 8 gusa, byarangiye trump amwirukanye bagatandukana utyo. Uyu steve bannon n'undi muherwe bita Robert Mercer niba bashoye amafranga menshi muri iki gikorwa nubwo Bannon ariwe wakireberaga.


[photo: Steve Bannon]

Wylie ubwe mu magambo ye aganira na Observer (gikorana na the guardian) yavuze ati: “We exploited Facebook to harvest millions of people’s profiles. And built models to exploit what we knew about them and target their inner demons. That was the basis the entire company was built on”.

aya makuru yose  byatangiye imyaka 4 ishize ubwo umwarimu wigisha muri kaminuza ibijyanye na Pyschology (imitekerereze ya kimuntu) witwa Aleksandr Kogan yegereye uwitwa Michal Kosinski wakoraga applications zikorana na facebook (facebook third-party apps), aho yari yarakoze application abantu bakoreshaga
babanje kwinjiramo bakoresheje facebook zabo kugira ngo bazikoreshe.

Izi programu mvuga hano (facebook third-party apps) ni zimwe, dukunze kubona abantu bakoresha kuri facebook zitwa nka “How you will look in your 80s” ifata amafoto yawe zikayahindura ubuto bwawe zikayahindura uko uzaba usa nugera mu busaza, n’izindi nka “which celebrity you look like”, “Who will be your valentine this Year”. 

Niba ukoresha facebook nziko hari imwe muri izo application ushoborakuba uzi, warayibonye zimwe mu nshuti zawe ziyikoresha cg nawe warazikoresha, gusa iyo ugiye kuzikoresha bakubwira amwe mu makuru iyo application izatwara facebook ibitse, wabyemera ikayatwara. Nubwo facebook Platform policy itemera ko izi application aya makuru zatwaye zitemerewe kuyagurisha cg ngo ziyakoreshe mu bindi bikorwa.

Ni uko izi third-party apps zibasha gutwara amakuru y’abantu bakoresha facebook, uko bagenda babika menshi y’abantu benshi ni nako baba bafite ubushobozi bwinshi

Igihe Kosinski yanganga gutanga amakuru iyi application ye yari yaramaze gufata iyakura mu bantu bayikoresha, Kogan yahisemo ku mwishyura ibihumbi  800 by’amadollars ($ 800K) ngo amukorere indi application izajya ifata amakuru menshi ashoboka ku muntu wese uyikoresha hakubiyemo na pages yahiye akurikirana (likes) kuri facebook,  iyi application yaje kwitwa “ThisIsYourDigitalLife”, iza no gukundwa cyane kuko yakoresheje n’abantu ibihumbi 270, muri abo bantu bose ariko harimo abishyuwe kugira ngo bakoreshe iyi application nabo amakuru yabo akajyanwa. 

gusa kubera ko icyo gihe facebook itari yagafata umurongo uhamye wo kurinda amakuru y’abantu bayikoresha, icyo gihe byari byoroshye kugira ngo niba umuntu akoresheje iyo application ube wagenda umenye n’inshutize (friends) amakuru yazo nubwo bo   baba batarigeze bakoresha iyo
application.  

Ibi byatumye iyi application ibasha kuba yafata amakuru y’abantu bagera kuri million 50 zose kuri facebook.

Nkuko bitangazwa n’abakora ibi bikorwa bya data science, byibuze kumenya amapages 68 umuntu aba yara likinze kuri facebook birahagije kuba wamenya ibara ry’uruhu rwe (skin color), sex orientation(abo aryamana nabo. Gay or Straight), ibitekerezo bye kubyerekeye politike (political views), n'ibindi byinshi.

Iki gitekerezo aba bagabo bari bafite cyari gikubiyemo kubasha kumenya imyitwarrire y’umuntu n’imitekerereze ye bagendeye kubyo akunda ‘likes’ (likes akora kuri
facebook na pages akurikirana), maze bakaba bakwiga ku mitekereree ye. maze bagakora uko bashoboye kose harimo nko kugerageza guhindura amakuru umuntu abona kuri news feed ye (amakuru ubona iyo dufunguye konti ya facebook yawe), ayo makuru harimo ay'ibinyoma, ibihuha byose bigamije ku muhindura ibitekerezo byuko abona umukandida ateganya gutora. Ku buryo birangira ahinduye imitekereze yuko yabonaga uruhande rumwe rwa politike.

Nyuma yuko iyi saga imenyekanye byagize ingaruka kuri facebook bikomeye aho byagaragaye ko amakuru facebook ibitse ku bantu barenga miliyari y’abatuye isi bayikoresha ashobora kuba akoreshwa mu buryo bubi ndetse no mu bikorwa bibi.

Nibwo hatangiye igisa nka movement yitwa #DeleteFacebook aho abantu benshi bagendaga basiba konti za facebook zabo. Abantu bari bashyigikiye iki gikorwa harimo n’abakomeye bafite amazina azwi mw’ikoranabuhanga twavuga nka Brian Acton washinze whatsapp nyuma akaza kuyigurisha kuri facebook, twavuga na Elon Musk uherutse gusiba pages z’ibigo bye bikomeye nka SpaceX igurutsa ibyogajuru mu kirere.


[photo: Elon Musk kuri twitter ye, asubiza abantu ko agiye gusiba page ya facebook ya company ye]


Iyi nkuru igisohoka, byafashe iminsi irenga itatu, Mark Zuckerberg umuyobozi mukuru wa facebook nta kintu atangaje aho itangazamakuru ryari ryatangiye kuvuga ko yatinye kugira icyo atangaza,
ku wa gatatu tariki 21 werurwe nibwo yakoze interview na CNN  asaba imbabazi anongeraho we mu magambo ye ati: “we have responsibility to protect your data, and if we don’t the we don’t deserve to serve you”,  anongera ho igihe cyose congress ya amerika yamutumiza yaza akisobanura. Ndetse ko facebook yamaze gufatira ingamba zikomeye third-party apps.


[Photo: Mark zuckerberg, umuyobozi wa facebook]

Inteko Nshingamategeko y’ubwongereza nayo ikaba ishaka ko mark Zuckerberg yagezwa imbere y’iyi nteko akaba yasubiza biwe mu bibazo bifuza kumubaza , gusa bikaba bisa nkaho ho adashaka kuzahagera.

nabwo facebook yahise ihagarika Cambridge Analytica hamwe na konti ya Kogan na Wylie kuri facebook.

Ku wa kabiri taliki 20 werurwe nabwo CEO w’iki kigo Cambridge Analytica witwa Alexander Nix akaba nawe yarahagaritswe ku buyobozi bw’iki kigo nyuma yuko afashwe amashusho rwihishwa (undercover Camera) ari kuganira n’umunyamakuru w’igitanzamakuru cya Channel 4 News waje yigize umu client mushya ushaka ko nawe bamukorera nk’ibyo bakora wo muri Sri Lanka, aho uyu muyobozi yafashwe ku mashusho arimo yigamba ko ntacyo batakorera umuclient wabo ko bashobora no kohereza abakobwa bigurisha aho undi mu candida baba bahanganye aba, bikagera mu itangazamakuru isura ye nayo ikaba yagaragara nabi muri rubanda,

Nubwo iki kigo nyuma yo guhagarika uyu muyobozi wacyo cyatangaje ko ntabyo kizi kuri ibyo bikorwa uyu muyobozi yavuze bakora.

Iki kigo si amatora yo muri leta zunze ubumwe z’amerika bagizemo uruhare gusa kuko bivugwa ko banagize uruhare mu matora yo muri Kenya aheruka, ukongera ho ko banagize uruhare muri referendum iheruka kuba mu bwongereza yiswe “Brexit” aho abongereza bahisemo kuva mu muryango wunze ubumwe w’uburayi (European Union)

Mu gusoza navuga ko ubu kubera ikoreshwa rya internet hamwe n’uburyo ubu ikoranabuhanga rijyanye na Data science  rikoreshwa ku rugero rwo hejuru mu bintu byinshi. Ibi byatumye Data(information) ziba imali ikomeye.  Ku buryo ubu kuba utunze information nyinshi zerekeye ku bantu wabinganya no kugira ikirombe cy’izahabu cg icya petrol.

Tekereza kuba nka facebook ukaba ufite amakuru (data) menshi ku bantu barenga miliyari ituye isi, uzi aho baba, numero zabo za telephone, amafoto yabo, aho bakunze kuba bari, abo bakunze kuba bari kumwe, inshuti zabo, ise , mama, aho yize, aho akora, ibyo akunda kurya, ibyo anywa, umugore we  abo bavukana, abana be n’andi makuru menshi

Aya yose bayakurahe?  Nitwe tuyitangira iyo twuzuza imyirondoro yacu n’ibyacu byose kuri facebook, iyo tuhafunguza konti n’ibyo twuzuza kuri walls zacu.

Nubwo amakuru facebook ifite kubatuye isi ari menshi ntago warangiza utavuze Google yo kubera ko iyo idufiteho ni ntagereranywa. Kubera ko dukoresha products za google mu buzima bwacu bwa buri kanya, Google mail (gmail), Android Phones, Google search, google chrome n’ibindi byinshi ntarondora

Ubonye uburyo ubona amakuru yose google ikuziho, ushobora gusanga ikuzi kurusha uwo mubana mu nzu imwe.

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Sobanukirwa: Bluetooth

Bluetooth yagiye hanze mu mwaka wa 1994 ishyizwe hanze n'uruganda rwa Ericsson, izina bluetooth rikaba ryaravuye ku mwami wayoboye Denmark na Norway witwaga Harald Bluetooth wabayeho mu kinyejana cya 10. icyo gihe biriya bihugu byari byiganjemo abantu bo mu bwoko bw'aba Vikings, nawe akaba yari umu viking. 


umwami Bluetooth


Bluetooth ikora ite?

Bluetooth nayo ni ubwoko bwa wireless communication, nkuko uzi za Wi-Fi,  gusa bukorera ahantu hatoya. ibikoresho bya electronic biza birimo iyi bluetooth guhera kuri za Digital Camera (izigira bluetooth), printers, telephones, mudasobwa, n'ibindi bikoresho byinshi bya electronics  biba bishobora guhanahana no gu shareringa data hagati yabyo. 

Bluetooth ikoresha frequency ya 2.45 GHz, bivuze ko ubashije kuba ufite igikoresho cyakira frequency ya 2.45GHz, ushobora kujya ufata ibintu byose biri guca ahantu uherereye bijyanywe na bluetooth (nkuko iyo ufite radio FM ubasha gufata signals ziri guca aho uherereye ziri kugenda kuri frequency hagati ya 88 kugeza kuri 108 MHz, kuko radio ni igikoresho cyakozwe ngo kijye cyakira izo signal zose zigendera muri iriya range,  gusa ntibivuze ko signal yose iri hagati ya 88-108MHz radio fm zacu zasobora kuyumviriza,  kuko ushobora gufata nawe signal ya wenda 88Mhz ukayinyuza nawe mu kirere (ukayi transmittinga), ariko wamaze kuya encondinga, ku buryo radio niyo yayakira itaza kuza gushobora ku decodinga (demodulation) ya signal wohereje, kuko radio itazi ibyo wohereje ibyo aribyo)

Abahanga mu bya electronics nibo baba barashyizeho ziriya standards zose tugenderaho, nko kuvuga ngo bluetooth ikorera kuri 2.45GHz, bivuze ko uruganda rwose ruzajya gukora igikoresho cya bluetooth ruzubahiriza ariya mahame, nti rukore bluetooth ikorera kuri wenda 3GHz kuko iyo ntiyazigera ikorana n'izindi

Ingano yaho  bluetooth ishobora kugeza biterwa n'ubushobozi n'ingufu zo kohereza kure no kwakira by'icyo gikoresho irimo hamwe na na verison ya bluetooth, ubu nguba hakaba hari versions za bluetooth zigera muri eshanu aho iya 5 ishobora kugeza muri metero 400 (nubwo itarashyirwa mu bikoresho biri kw'isoko ubu), naho twebe izo dukoresha zikaba inyinshi ari version ya 3, aho itarenza metero 10, version ya 4 yo igeza muri metero 100 ikaba inagira umuvuduko wa  2.1Mbps 

Network yakozwe na bluetooth bayita PAN cyangwa Piconet

Umutekano wa Bluetooth

waba wibaza niba iyo ucanye bluetooth ya telephone yawe, ibyo uri kuhanyuza cg ibyo uri gu shareringa n'undi muntu muri kumwe aho, byaba bifite umutekano ko nta wundi muntu wabibona? cg ujya wibaza niba mu gihe ucanye bluetooth atari nkaho uba ufunguye umuryango, ku muntu wese ubifitiye ubushobozi n'ubumenyi akaba yakwinjira muri telephone yawe?

Yego Bluetooth hamwe n'izindi wireless communication hafi ya zose zijya kohereza ibyo zohereza zabanje kwa encryptinga kuburyo niyo wabifata utabigenewe ntacyo byakumarira, gusa  aba hackers n'abandi banyabyaha benshi nabo bagenda bagira ibyo bangiza.  hari icyo nakwita nka attacks eshatu ubu zishobora gukorwa kuri bluetooth yawe mu gihe ujya usiga uyicanye,

  • Bluebugging () 
  • Bluejacking (gu controlla bluetooth itari iyawe, ukayikoresha ibyo ushaka byose)
  • Bluesnarfing ( kureba ibintu bantu babiri bari gukoresha bluetooth bari guhanahana)
  • BlueBorne (iyi niyo nshya yavumbuwe umwaka ushize wa 2017, mu gihe bluetooth yawe icanye, yakora icyo yifuza cyose muri telephone tawe)

niba utara updatinga smartphone yawe, patches zo google na apple zatanze umwaka ushize, nawe menya ko telephone yawe ishobora kwinjirirwa hakoreshejwe uburyo bwa blueborne, gusa niba utaranigeze wa updatinga, ibyiza ni ukujya wibuka gufunga bluetooth yawe mu gihe utari kuyikoresha kuko mu gihe izimije ntawabona aho yinjirira. 

aha navuze muri make, ushaka kemenya byinshi kuri izo attacks, wajya google! ukazigaho


Ahazaza ha Bluetooth

kubera ko nayo ari ubwoko bwa wireless communication nkuko twatangiye tubivuga, kandi ikaba ikenerwa cyane mu dukoresho duto ngendanwa. aho utwo dukoresho dukorwa himirijwe ko twarambana umuriro, bluetooth yo ikaba irya umuriro mwinshi iyo icanye, ibi biba imbogamizi ku bantu bakora utu dukoresho.  ikindi kibazo bluetooth izahura nacyo ni iterambere rya internet aho ubu hari icyitwa "Internet of things" gisa nkaho kiri gufata intera cyane muri iyi minsi (internet of things ni uburyo bushya buri kuza ubu, buhuza ibikoresho byose bya electronic kuba byajya kuri  internet kandi bwo kubaba budafite ya mbogamizi ya bluetooth yo gukora ahantu hato 

ibi bigasa nkaho nubwo bluetooth ntaho yenda kujya vuba aha, ariko uko imyaka izagenda ihita bigaragara ko ikoreshwa ryayo rizagenda  rigabanuka

niba ushaka gusoma byinshi kuri bluetooth wa kanda aha

by BahatiPhill in How To

Wamenya ute niba imyirondoro yawe yo ku rubuga runaka yarigeze ishyirwa hanze

Kubera ko ubu hafi ya twese dusigaye dukoresha murandasi (internet) buri munsi dusura imbuga zitandukanye, ubu buri muntu ukoresha internet usanga aba afite konti ku mbuga za internet zitandukanye aba yaragiye asura ashaka gukoresha services zabo, nk'urugero, abenshi muri twe bafite konti kuri facebook, indi kuri instagram, indi kw'irembo, indi kuri twitter indi kuri ebay n'ahandi henshi ugenda usura bikagusaba ko ubanza gufunguza konti kuri urwo rubuga kugirango ubone uburenganzira ubone bwo kurukoresha. Ibi bigakubitaho ko hafi ya hose aho dufunguza konti badusaba email yacu, ugasanga email yawe wenda niba ufite imwe cyangwa ebyiri, nizo ukoresha ufunguza konti ahantu hose ugeze. Aha rero tugiye kubabwira uburyo wamenya niba imyirondoro yawe yaba yarigeze ishyirwa hanze n'abahackers mubyo bita Data Breach.

 Data Breach

Data breach ni iki?  data breach ni ukujya hanze kw'amakuru yari isanzwe ari ibanga, ibi bikunda kubaho ku mbuga za internet ziba zibitse ariya makuru y'abantu baba barahafunguje konti zabo. Biba igihe abahackers baba babashije kwinjira mu bubiko bw'amakuru (database) bw'urubuga runaka aho rubika amakuru yose ajyanye na konti z'abantu bahafunguje maze abo ba hackers bakaziba bakaba banazishyira hanze, aha ni hamwe twumva ngo aba hackers bamennye amabanga y'urubuga runaka.
Data breach yagiye iba ku mbuga zikomeye cyane twese tuzi aho zinjirirwaga maze amakuru yose zibitse y'abantu bahafite konti akajya hanze, izi mbuga zirimo nka myspace, tmblr, Uber, 000webhost, VK, linkedln, ashley madison n'izindi nyinshi.
email cyangwa andi makuru akwerekeyeho kuba yajya hanze ntacyo urebye bivuze cyane, igiteye impungenge nuko muri data breach akenshi usibye email ukoresha haba hanarimo password ukoresha kuri iyo konti bikongera kurushaho gutera impungenge cyane kuko abantu benshi bakoresha password imwe ahantu hose, bivuze ko password ya email ye usanga ari nayo password ya konti ye ya facebbok, ariyo ye yo kuri instagram n'ahandi hose afunguza konti akenshi abantu bakabikora gutya murwego rwo kwirinda kuzibagirwa passwords bakoresha.
Bikumvikana ko ugize amahirwe yo kumenya password ye y'ahantu hamwe ushobora kuba konti ze zose wazizenguruka winjiramo ugakora ibyo ushaka ukoresheje ya password imwe yonyine.  Akenshi bamwe mu bafunguje konti kuri izi mbuga zigira data breach ntibanamenya ko byabaye, kuko kompanyi nyinshi zigeregeza guhisha ibi bintu iyo bizibayeho.

Have I Been Pwned?

Have i been pwned ni iki rero? Have i been pwned ni urubuga rwashinzwe muri 2004 rufata data breaches zose zabayeho zishoboka maze bakabika izo information ku buryo umuntu wese ubishaka nta kiguzi ushobora kuza ugashyiramo email yawe ukareba ko imbuga za intenet zose wigize gufunguzaho konti nta na rumwe rwaba rwaragize data breach ntubimenye maze umwirondoro wawe wabahaye ugashyirwa ahagaragara. 

Ubu ngubu mu Kuboza 2017 ubwo twandikaga iyi nkuru have i been pwned yari imaze kugira miliyari 4.8 za konti zose muri  data breaches 251 bamaze kuba babika.

Njye na kwireba gute muri data breaches zimaze kujya hanze

Kureba niba emails ukoresha niba nta nimwe yaba yarashyizwe hanze icyo ukora ni ukujya ku rubuga rwa Have i Been Pwned maze ugashyiramo email yawe byonyine bakaguha igisubizo. Hano ndakoresha urugero rw'imwe muri email nkoresha 


Kubw'amahirwe imbuga zose nakoreshejeho iyi email mpafunguza amakonti urabonako nta na rumwe rwari rwagira data breach.

Gusa dushobora kugerageza indi email yaba  yaragiye ijya muri data breaches nyinshi,   reka dukoresha email ya ajit pai (niba utazi ajit pai wasoma ibye ukanze hano


Ajit Pai konti ze yafunguje akoresheje iyi email ye zabaye bleached kuri dropbox muri 2012, exploit muri 2016 na linkedln muri 2016.  

Isomo ahangaha wa kwiga ni uko ibyiza bishoboka ari uko wajya ukoresha passwod zitandukanye kuri konti zitandukanye, kuba data zawe zaba breached byo ntacyo wabikoraho kuko iyo ufunguje konti ku rubuga runaka nuko uba wiyemeje ko ubaha amakuru bagusaba maze nabo bakaguha ibyo ukeneye kuri urwo rubuga. 

Gusa ubungubu ntiwakagira impungenge cyane kuko abakora imbuga ubu batakibika password z'abantu bahafungujeho konti muri database zabo ngo babibike mu magambo asanzwe (plain text), basigaye bakoresha ibyo bita kubika passwod ziri salted cyangwa digest hash resuklt za password yawe bikaba byo bitanga umutekano usesuye.

Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

Net Neutrality: Ikibazo Cyakaguhangayikishije Niba Ukoresha Murandasi

Dukoresha murandasi buri munsi dusura imbuga zitandukanye, tureba Video kuri Youtube dusoma amakuru, twohererezanya ubutumwa (emails), n'ibindi bitandukanye, gusa ubu hakaba hari ikibazo gikomeye cyane abakoresha murandasi bafite ubu (Nubwo wenda wowe waba utarabimenya), ni ikibazo cy'itegeko rigiye gutorwa muri uku Kuboza rikuraho icyo bita Net Neutrality

Net Neutrality ni iki ?

Kugira ngo wumve net neutrality n'agaciro kayo bisaba ubusobanuro butagoye. Net Neutrality ni amategeko n'amahame ibigo bicuruza murandasi (internet), Internet Service Providers "ISP" (mu rwanda dufite MTN, Airtel, HSPA, Olleh, Tigo n'ibindi byinshi ), ayo mategeko ibi bigo niyo bigenderaho avuga ko internet traffics zose cyangwa data zose  zibacaho zigiye kunyura mu muyoboro wabo ngo zijye muri internet bazifata kimwe.

Urugero: niba uri gukoresha murandasi ugashaka gusura urubuga wenda rwa Ktimez.com bivuze ko niba waguze bundle za Airtel cyangwa za MTN, traffics zawe uri kohereza kugira ngo ugere ku rubuga rwa ktimez ahantu ruri kuri internet  izo traffic zigomba gufatwa kimwe na traffic zawe wohereza ushaka gusura wenda Youtube cyangwa Irembo cyangwa urundi rubuga urwari rwo rwose. 

Net Neutrality nivaho tuzaba duhombye iki?

Kuvaho kwa net neutrality bizatuma ibi bigo biducuruzaho internet biba bifite ubushobozi bukomeye cyane bwo kuba byagenga internet dukoresha, kubera ko bazaba bafite uburenganzira bwo kuba urubuga rumwe badashaka bashobora kurugendesha gake cyane kugira ngo abashaka kurujyaho baze kurambirwa maze ntibabe bakirusuye gusa sicyo ibi bigo bigamije.

Ikibazo gikomeye ahubwo kiri ku nkubiri izahita ivuka kuko ibigo bikomeye bifite amafranga menshi cyane bizagenda bijye byishyura aba ISP (Internet service providers) kugira ngo imbuga zabyo zijye ziba ziri mu muyoboro wihuta kurusha izindi (icyo bakunda kwita first lane)

Urugero: Dufate imbuga ebyiri hano mu rwanda zandika ku makuru asanzwe nkeka ko zinakomeye hano mu gihugu.  tuvuge Igihe n'Ukwezi. Tekereza wenda igihe kigiye muri MTN kikishyura amafaranga kugira ngo bagishyire muri first lane maze ukwezi bagukuremo, maze umuntu wese uzajya ashaka gusura urubuga rwa igihe ari gukoresha internet ya MTN abashe kurugeraho vuba nagerageza kujya ku kwezi bigende gake cyane kubera ko ukwezi kutari muri First Lane, ngaho noneho tekereza igihe kigiye kikabikora kuba ISP bose bakorera mu Rwanda wajya ujya gusura igihe bikirukanka cyane wasura ukwezi bikagenda gake cyane kuburyo wanarambirwa ukavaho bitarafunguka. (Urwo rwari urugero rworoshye nkeka ko ibyo ntawubifite muri gahunda) 

Urwo rwari urugero rwa hafi, tekereza noneho bino bi kompanyi bya rutura nka za Google, Faceook, Amazon na za Twitter n'amafaranga zifite zizengurutse ibihugu byose zishyura aba ISP bose amafaranga menshi cyane y'umurengera kugira ngo abe aribyo byonyine bishyirwa muri first lane, izindi mbuga zose zidafite ubwo bushobozi bwo kwishyura ayo mafranga bazishyire muri "slow lane"?


Agafoto gasobanura Fast lane na Slow Lane

Icyo nicyo kibazo gikomeye abantu bakoresha murandasi bafite gikomeye bagiye guhura nacyo mugiye ririya tegeko rizaramuka ritowe 

Gusa wigira impungenge ngo bigiye guhita bikorwa kuko aho byahereye ari muri USA aho ikigo bita  Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gishinzwe ibintu byose bijyanye n'itumanaho muri America kizabanza gutora iryo tegeko niba ryakwemezwa kw'itariki 14 Ukuboza k'uyu mwaka. Iri tegeko rikaba ryaratanzwe nuwo bita  Ajit Pai uheruka gushyirwaho na Pres. Trump akaba ari nawe muyobozi wa FCC akaba nanone anashyigikiwe naba ISP bo muri USA nka  AT&T, Comcast na Verizon kuko babyungukiramo, nubwo bitangiriye USA bivuze ko natwe inaha bishoboka cyane ko bizatugeraho. 

Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Facebook: konti mpimbano zigera kuri miliyoni 270

Muri iyi minsi byakugora kubaho udakoresheje imbuga nkoranyambaga kubera ko ubuzima bwacu bisa nk'aho ariho bugenda bwimukira, abenshi ntibagihamagara bakoresha imbuga nkoranyambaga bohererezanya ubutumwa na gahunda zabo zose akaba ariho zibera 

Kuva aho mu minsi ishize byagiye bivugwa ko aba Russia baba barifashishije imbuga nkoranyambaga nka Facebook ndetse na Twitter kugira ngo babe bakwivanga mu matora y'abanyamerika aheruka kuba mu mpera z'umwaka ushize (bafashe Donald Trump gutorwa), Facebook na Twitter zikavuga ko zinagiye gufatanya gukora ubugenzuzi  ngo zirebe niba koko ibyo byaba byarabaye, nubwo icyegeranyo nyacyo kitarashyirwa hanze, gusa ibihamya bikaba bigenda bigaragara ko koko aba russia baba barivanze mu matora ya Leta Zunze ubumwe za Amerika, nk'aho facebook iheruka gutangaza ko byibuze abantu bagera muri millions 126 bose baba barabonye ubwo butumwa bwamamaza (facebook ads) kuri facebook feed yabo bw'abarussia.

Mu cyumweru gishize kuwa gatatu uheruka nibwo facebook yashyize hanze imibare (statistics) itandukanye yerekana uko ihagaze muri izi mpera  z'umwaka, aho yatangaje ko byibuze ubu haba kuri facebook konti (accounts) zigera muri millions 270 zose za ruburika (fake accounts) ziba zarakozwe n'abantu batandukanye banagamije intego zitandukanye. izo konti zikaba zihwanye na 2-3% bya konti ziba kuri facebook. ikindi nanone cyatangajwe ni uko hari konti zingana na 10% z'abantu baba bariyitiriye amazina y'abastar baba bazwi cyane, nabo bagakora konti zifite amazina nk'ayongayo yitiranwa n'abastars batandukanye bo ku isi baba bakora ibintu bitandukanye nk'abakinnyi, abanyamiziki, abakina films, abayobozi b'ibihugu, n'abandi benshi batandukanye baba bafite amazina yabo azwi cyane ku isi. 


Mark Zuckerberg, umuyobozi wa facebook

ibi bikaba bimaze kumenyerwa ko abantu benshi basigaye bakora ibyaha bifashishije imbuga nkoranyambaga aho biba binoroshye kwihinduranya uwo uriwe abantu muvugana kuri izo mbuga bakaba batazi ko iyo ari fake account ukoresha (abenshi bazita mask account).    

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Menya Explore Feed: Agashya Facebook yazanye

Ushobora kuba utarabimenye gusa vuba aha facebook nk'uko isanzwe igenera udushya abayikoresha ubudasiba umunsi ku munsi, ubu noneho iri kugerageza ubundi buryo bushya izajya igeza amakuru ku muntu uyikoresha, twari dusanzwe tuzi ”News Feed” za facebook  (kuriya ufungura facebook yawe amakuru uhita ubona haba harimo ay'abantu ba postinze, pages za facebook zashyizeho, na groups za facebook zose ubamo nibyo bihita biza, nibyo bita ”News Feed” yawe.)

Ubwo buryo bushya bwitwa ”Explore Feed” bwo bugizwe n’amakuru facebook ibona yagushishikaza bitewe n’ibintu ukunda gukora kuri facebook, nk’urugero niba ukunda  ku likinga (like) pages z’imipira n’imikino bivuze ko Explore feed yawe izaba igizwe n’amakuru y’imikino yiriwe avugwa kuri pages zo kuri facebook zivuga ku mikino niyo waba utarazikunze (like), gutyo gutyo. Bikaba bizafasha umuntu ukoresha facebook kumenya amakuru kandi ahereye ku makuru we ubwe akunda, cyane cyane ko bitazajya bisaba ko uba warakunze (like) page kugira ngo ubona amakuru yayo, mu gihe uri muri "explore feed" facebook izajya ikwereka amakuru agezweho kandi ajyanye n'ibyo yabonye ushishikarira.

Kugira ngo ubone explore feed niba ukoresha smartphone, ukoresha application za facebook zitunzwe na benshi zo muri smartphone, arizo facebook app cyangwa facebook lite (iyo ariyo yose waba ufite murizi yose yabigufashamo). 

1. Ukanda kuri "More" (akamenyetso kagaragara munguni hejuru ahagana iburyo)



2. Ugakurikizaho gukanda kuri Explore Feed (aho akamenyetso kari kwerekana)



3. Wakandaho bagahita bakuzanira ya makuru babona yagushishikaza


Aha urugero njye nkunda The Walking Dead, urabona ko ariyo bahise banzanira mu makuru naheraho ndeba.

Facebook nka rumwe mu mbuga nkoranyambaga zikunzwe kandi zimaze imyaka itari mike rukoreshwa na benshi, ni ngombwa ko ihora iha udushya abayikoresha kugirango bagumye bakururwe n'ibishya ibaha be kuyoboka izindi mbuga bihanganye, ariyo mpamvu y'izi mpinduka zose kandi hazakomeza no kuza izindi mu rwego rwo kugirango ihangane n'izindi mbuga nkoranyambaga nazo zitari nke kandi zihora ziha ibyiza abazikoresha.

Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero mu gihe wakunze ubumenyi ktimez ikugezaho umunsi ku munsi wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira udusobanuza iby'ikoranabuhanga runaka udasobanukiwe cyangwa uduha ubwunganizi kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Menya amoko ya screens za smartphones

Abenshi (si bose) iyo bagiye kugura smartphone bareba Camera, memory space gusa. iyo ibyo babona bibahagije bitewe n'ibyo bifuza  nta kindi bitaho. Muri iyi nkuru turasobanura ubwoko bwa Screens ziba kuri smartphones, nawe ukaba wamenya screen ya smartphone yawe ubwoko bwayo, ukamenya ibyiza byayo, n'ibibi byayo. Ukamenya izihenda n’iza make.

Amoko ya Screen za Smartphones

Hari amoko abiri y’ingenzi. Ayo ni:

  • LCD
  • OLED 

andi ni amoko akomoka kuri ayongayo, nyo turaza kuyabona.

LCD

(Liquid Crystal display).  LCD ikoreshwa cyane kuri screen nyinshi  n’iza amalaptops zirayikoresha, bukaba ari uburyo bwo kwerekana amashusho kuri screen bidatwaye ingufu nyinshi(less power)  bityo bigatuma itamara umuriro wa battery cyane bikaniyongeraho ko  ibara ryose riri muri screen ritwara umuriro ungana, ni ukuvuga ngo haba muri screen harimo umutuku cyangwa hakazamo umukara byose bitwara umuriro kimwe. Bakoresha icyo bita liquid crystal mu gukora izi screen, ikaba yerekana amashusho uko urumuri rwaba ruhari rwose uko rungana  no mu zuba kuko igira urumuri rwinshi kurusha OLED

Hari amoko abiri ya LCD ayo ni  TFT LCD na IPS LCD


TFT LCD

Kuzikora birahendutse, ariko zikagira ikibazo zihariyeho. Sinzi niba warigeze kubibona uko nka laptop cyangwa smartphone za kera iyo ugiye ku ruhande rwayo (wahinduye inguni ya sceen, ukajya muri angle iri hagati ya 45 na 90 ubona uko amashusho ahita ahinduka akagaragara nabi) bituma utaharebera, bigasaba ko TFT LCD screen bisaba ko umuntu uyireberamo  ko aba ateganye nayo.


IPS LCD

Nizo zikunda gukoreshwa cyane kuri smartphone zihendutse. Nazo ni nka TFT LCD gusa zo zikagira umwihariko zongerewemo wo kuba warebera mu nguni zose ukareba nta kibazo ugize.

OLED

OLED yaje ari ikintu gikomeye cyari kigezweho (milestone) mu gukora screens za smartphones, ikagira nayo amoko abiri ariyo AMOLED na Super AMOLED, izi screens zikaba zisohoka muri smartphone zihenze cyane, muri smartphone ziriho screen ya OLED twavuga nka Google Pixel 2, Apple iPhone X, Huawei Mate 10 Pro, Samsung galaxy C8, LG V30,  n’izindi.

AMOLED

Bukaba ari ubwoko bwa screen bunahenda kuko bufite umwihariko,  nko kuba bya bindi twavuze ruguru, amabara atwara umuriro bitewe nayo ariyo, kuba yerekana amashusho n’amabara asa neza cyane kurusha LCD, ikagira n’urumuli rutica amaso cyane nka LCD

Super AMOLED

Ni AMOLED isanzwe ariko yongerewe ubushobozi ikaba ikunda gukoreshwa muri smatphone za Samsung zihenze.


RETINA

Izi screen zikaba zikoreshwa na Apple muri smartphones za iphone bakora, zatangiye gukoreshwa muri  iphone 4, Ubu ntabwo wabufata nk’ubwoko kuko ari IPS LCD yafashwe ikongerwamo utundi tuntu duto duto, ikaba igira pixel 330 kuri inch imwe  (330 ppi), inch ikaba ingana na sentimetero 2.5 (2.5 cm). 330 ppi zikaba arizo pixel  nyinshi zishoboka ko umuntu yareba kuri inch imwe, apple ikaba bisa nk'aho ititaga cyane ku kongera ubu bushobozi kuko ibona ko ntacyo byari kuba bimaze mu kongera ubushobozi bw’amashusho pixel nyinshi muri inch imwe (ppi=pixel per inch) mu gihe amaso y’umuntu atashobora kubibona. gusa ibyo hari ku bwa Steve Jobs akiyobora Apple, nyuma y'uko Tim Cook abaye CEO wa Apple barongereye  kuko nka iphone 6 plus yasohotse ifite 401 ppi, mu gihe apple iphone X iheruka gusohoka yo yaje ifite Super AMOLED

itandukanyirizo riri hagati ya LCD na OLED


Niba udatunze ziriya telephone za rutura zikigera ku isoko ziba zihenze, ibyo aribyo byose utunze IPS LCD screen, ubutaha nujya kugura smartphone uzarebe specifications zayo urebe screen ugiye kugura.

by BahatiPhill in Android IOS

Menya Amoko Ya Processors [Part 1]

Nk'uko inkuru iheruka twanditse ivuga ibyo wakwitaho mu gihe ugiye kugura mudasobwa (niba utarayisomye, kanda aha uyisome), twavuze ko tuzafata umwanya tukavuga kuri processors zonyine, ukamenya amoko ya processors ari kw'isoko ubu, aho atandukanira, iyo wahitamo mu gihe runaka bitewe nibyo ukora ukamenya iya kubera nziza, aha turabanza tuvuge kuri processors zijya muri mudasobwa, hanyuma ubutaha tuzavuga kuzikoreshwa muri smartphones

Processors za mudasobwa hari amoko menshi yazo menshi cyane kw’isoko, gusa hakaba hari amoko abiri ya processors ahora ahanganye, ayo moko akaba anahanganye kuko akorwa n’inganda ebyiri nazo zihora zihanganye muri uyu mwuga wo gukora processors (nk'uko Samsung ihora ihanganye na Apple mu gukora smartphones), izo kompanyi akaba ari: "Intel na AMD"

Abenshi muri twe dutunze cyangwa dukunda kubona mudasobwa ziriho agapapuro k'ubururu gafashe kuri mudasobwa kanditseho akajambo "intel" n’irindi zina runaka rivuga ubwoko bwa processor ya intel iri muri iyo mudasobwa yawe.

Aka kamenyetso abanshi murakazi kuri za mudasobwa zanyu

Intel

Duhereye kuri Intel ifite processors ikora  (turi kuvuga izikiri kw’isoko kuko hari izo bakoze mu myaka y'I 1970 ziba zitagikorwa kandi zitanakigurishwa)  harimo  intel core (i3,i5,i7, i9),  xeon, celeron, intel atom,  pentium n’izindi, ariko ugasanga muri izi processors ziba ari uruhererekane nk’urugero usanga hari intel core i7-7820X, hakaba i7-6950X , i7-6900X, i7-8700X. gutyo gutyo ariko zose zikitwa Intel core i7. Bikaba no kuri i9 n’izindi nazo zigira ama series.

Ni gute nasoma processor model za intel?


Aha tugiye kugenda turebera ku gishushanyo kiri haruguru

Ijambo rya mbere ni brand, ahangaha tukaba dufite  ”intel Core”, hari aho uzasanga handitseho Xeon, Celeron, Pentium cyangwa atom bitewe na brand iyo ariyo. Ahakurikiraho urabona icyo bita Brand Modifier, hano dufite ”i7”, hari aho uzasanga hari i3, i5 cyangwa i9 cyangwa se niba brand atari Intel core (ari nka  pentium) hari izo brand modifier uzasanga handitse m5, x5, E cyangwa N.   Ahakurikiyeho urahabona  Generation indicator, ibi bikaba bivuze generation iyi processor irimo, iyi yacu iriho ”7” bikaba bivuze ko iri muri generation ya karindwi, intel ziheruka gukorwa ubu zikaba ari generation ya 8 (kubera ko zikiri nshya zinahenze ntiwapfa kuzibona ku masoko ubungubu, keretse uyitumije, kuko intel yazitangaje mu kwezi kwa 8 k'uyu mwaka, iyi generation ikaba yarahawe akazina ka (”kaby Lake refresh”). Inyuma noneho urahabona imibare cyangwa inyuguti nka U, Y, HQ, cyangwa  HK,  izi nyuguti zerekana icyo bita Processor line, gusa ntitujya gusobanura processor line kuko byasaba ko twandika byinshi kuri yo, gusa processor line ni ingezi kuko ikubwira wattage (uburyo irya umuriro) ya processor. 

Mu kurangiza kuri intel nakubwira ko  brand nka Celeron na Pentium nizo z’abantu bakoresha mudasobwa gake badakenera gukoraho ibintu byinshi, twavuga nko kujya kuri internet gusa, kureba filime n’ibindi nkibyo byoroheje cyangwa bakaba nta mafaranga ahagije bafite yatuma bagura mudasobwa yisumbuyeho, Atom yo iraciriritse cyane ntawe nagira inama yo kuyitunga, Xeon zo zikunda gukoreshwa muri za workstation, za mudasobwa ziba atari ngendwana akenshi kandi zikoreshwa akazi karemereye, aha twavugamo nka za server, abakora ubushakashatsi, animation n’ibindi nkibyo biremereye. Mu gihe intel Core nka i3, i5 zo ari iza mudasobwa za buri munsi k’umuntu usanzwe, naho nka i7 na i9 zikaza zisumbuyeho.

AMD

Tugiye kuri AMD nubwo yo idafite izina zikomeye nka intel, igira umwihariko wayo ukundwa n'abakiriya bayo cyane, uwo mwihariko akaba ari GPU.

GPU n’iki?

Mu magambo arambuye akaba ari (Graphical Processing Unit), ukibyumva ubonyemo ijambo graphical. GPU zikoreshwa cyane mu mashini zizakenera gukora ibintu bya Graphics nko gukora animation, ku renderinga films cyangwa videos, gushushanya amashusho ya 3D kuri screen byihuse nko muri games zigezweho ubu. GPU yihuta cyane mu gukora ibintu nk’ibingibi kurusha uko CPU isanzwe ya Processor ibikora bituma abantu bazikunda, akenshi uzasanga  GPU ziza k’uruhande ikaza ari  Graphic card mu mashini yawe ikayongera ubushobozi, aho kuba zifatanye na processor nk'uko Intel yo yakundaga kubikora (igakora processor CPU ikayifatanya na GPU),

AMD ibi bigatuma ukundwa cyane n’abantu bakora ibyo bintu bijyanye na Graphics, abantu bakunda gukina imikino y'amashusho ukongeraho aba hackers kuko mugihe bakeneye gukora ibintu bitwara umwanya munini nko gu crackinga passwords gukoresha GPU birihuta kurusha CPU. bitavuze ko CPU yo itakora ibyo byose tuvuze ruguru, irabikora ariko igatinda nko gu crackinga passwords bigufashe amasaha 8 ukoresheje CPU bishobora gutwara amasaha 3 ukoresheje GPU, 

Mu gukora GPU, AMD nayo igira indi company zihora zihanganye yitwa NVIDIA, gusa iyi ntambara ya NVIDIA na AMD yo gukora GPU zihuta yo ntituyivugaho byinshi mw'iyi nkuru.

Muri processor za AMD harimo nk'izitwa Ryzen, Athlon, AMD FX  , AMD APUs na Opteron,  izikaze kandi akaba ari Ryzen, zikaba nazo zigira uruhererekane nk'uko na intel izigira. Ryzen ikaba iri k’urugero nk'urwa intel core i7, mu gihe Opteron yo ikoreshwa muri za Workstation na Servers nka Intel Xeon

Ubu ubwo twandikaga iyi nkuru processor yabicaga bigacika ni iyitwa Intel Core i9-7980XE, igakurikirwa na AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X


Ushaka kureba urutonde rwose uko processors za mudasobwa zigenda zirutanwa mu bushobozi n’ibiciro byazo wajya ku rubuga rwa futuremark ukareba uko ziba zihagaze

Icyo twasorezaho

Twababwira ko ubwoko bwose bwa processor wahitamo  hari ibintu 7 ugomba kwitaho kuri processors kuko zose zibihuriraho:

Cores: na twita nk’udu processors duto tugize processor, (ni nko gufata udu processors twinshi ukaduhuriza hamwe tugakora processor imwe),

Hyper-threading: ni ubushobozi processor iba ifite bwo kwikoramo udu core turi virtual noneho, ikaba ifite nk’udu core tubiri ariko ikaba yakwiremamo udu cores tune turi virtual

Clock-Speed: ibarwa muri GigaHertz, hari iza 2GHZ, 4GHZ cyangwa 8GHZ, abenshi iyo bagiye kugura imashini ni iki barebaho gusa, bumva ko ku kuba ifite 8GHZ bihagije ariko ntibarebe nk'ibi bindi turi kuvuga nka Cores, hyper-threading n’ibindi

Turbo Boost:  ni uburyo ushobora gufata processor yawe ukayongera umuvuduko mu gihe uri gukora ibintu runaka ushaka ko byihuta, processor nyinshi za i5 na i7 zigira ubu bushobozi, mugihe i3 ntabwo ifite.

Cache: aka ni  aka RAM gato kaza kari kuri processor kayifasha kubika utuntu duke CPU igiye gu gukoresha, gakunda kuba kari hagati ya 1MB na 4MB (ugatandukanye naya RAM isanzwe)

TDP (Thermal Desing Power): ingufu z’umuriro  (watts) processor yawe ikoresha, niba ikoresha watts nyinshi bivuze ko ikora vuba, gusa nabyo bitera gushyuha cyane no kurya umuriro mwinshi

vPro: processor zifite ubushobozi bwa remote manager

Ubutaha noneho tuzaza tureba processors zo muri smartphone.

Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

N'ibiki Nareba Mu gihe Ngiye Kugura Mudasobwa?

Ikibazo nkunda guhura nacyo ahantu henshi  cyane n’iki ngiki, hey nshaka kugura imashini (mudasobwa,  ni bake numvishe bakoresha ijambo mudasobwa) nagura imeze ite? Nagura ubuhe bwoko? Nagura ifite capacite(ubwo aba abuvuze Hard Disk) ingana ite?   N’ibindi nk’ibyo

icya mbere imashini nziza uyihabwa nuko ikofi yawe ingana! Uko ikofi yawe wajyanye kwisoko ibyibushye ni ko uratahana imashini nziza. Gusa ntibivuze ko utapfa gutanga amafranga yawe uko ubonye kose utabanje kureba ibyo ugura, amafranga arahenda

Ikindi nanone, uhitamo imashini bitewe nicyo ugiye kuyikoresha, ni ukuvuga ngo niba uri umu producer w’indirimbo ntago uzaba ibyifuzo byawe by’imashini bizaba bihuje n’umuntu ukeneye imashini yo kurebaho filims cyangwa uwandikaho documents z’akazi ngo atange rapport. bitewe n'icyo imashini yawe uzayimaza uhitamo imashini mu rugero runaka.

Nk’urugero abantu bakora ibintu bijyanye n’amashusho, aba Graphic Designer, aba Architectures, aba gamers bakina amagames asigaye asohoka ubu aremereye ndetse n’abandi bantu bose baba bakeneye gukora ibintu bisa nka simulation muri mudasobwa bakenera imashini zifite ingufu cyane.

Ibintu tuvuga hano wagenderaho uhitamo mudasobwa biragera kwi 9, ikibanza gifite priority cyane kurusha ikigikurikira, ubwo n’ukuvuga ngo ikiza hejuru nicyo wagakwiye kubanza urebaho mu gihe ugiye kugura imashini kurusha ikiza k'umwanya wa 5 cya uwa nyuma. Kandi urebye nka 3 cyangwa 4 bya mbere ubyitayeho birahagije ngo ube wagura mudasobwa nziza niyo ibindi by’inyuma yaba itabyujuje, gusa ibyujuje ikarushaho. Ikindi hano nta biciro turi buvugemo


PROCESSOR

Processor ni umutima wa computer (muri context ya Kinyarwanda nabonye abantu bakoresha umutima bashaka kuvuga ubwonko), yego Processor ni ubwonko bwa computer tubivuze neza. Uko ubwonko bukora vuba nibwo byitwa ko bukora neza, uko na processor ikora vuba bivuze ko ishobora gukora akazi kenshi vuba maze mudasobwa ikihuta. processor bazibarira ku muvuduko wayo babara muri Hertz, ni ukuvuga ngo processor ifite 4 GHz irihuta kurusha ifite 2 GHz hakiyongeraho ko noneho processor ubunbugu bazongereye ubyo bita ama cores, ushobora kuba ufite processor yiruka cyane ariko ifte core imwe ikarutwa nigenda muburyo bugereranyije ariko ifite cores eshatu, Core ni nkagaprocessor gato, iyo ufite mudasobwa ifite core nyinshi bivuze ko ufite uduprocessor twinshi twegeranyijwe hamwe muri processor imwe, maze tugakorana niyo twaba tudafite umuvuduko uhambaye iyo ari twinshi turuta ya processor yihuta cyane ariko ifite core imwe,

mu gihe rero uri kureba processor ntukarebe umuvuduko gusa ujye ureba na cores ifite. naho ngaho rero hazamo izo bita i3 , i5 na i7 , i3 ni processor iba ifite core ebyiri, akenshi uzumva bamwe bayitwa Dual core, i5 iba ifite core 4 bagakunda kuyita Quad Core, gutyo gutyo.    ku muntu ukoresha imashini bisanzwe navugaga i3 irahagije, bamwe bakora akazi kenshi batangira kureba i5 na i7 

hari izindi processors bita AMD gusa tugiye kuzivugaho ntitwazarangiza kuko processor kuyimenya ni nini cyane, nzakora indi nkuru isobanura processor yonyine kuva imuzi. tuzasobanura naza ARM processors zo muri telephone


RAM

Ram niyo ifasha processor ibyo iri gukora ikaba ibibitse umwanya muto mu gihe processor itararangiza kuko RAM ni memory,  bivuze ko ushobora kugira Processor yihuta ufite RAM ntoya nabwo ugasanga imashini yawe ntigenda kubera ko processor ibura ibyo ikora (batanga urugero rwa RAM na Processor bavuga ngo ni nko kugira umufundi wubaka amatafari 100 mu munota ariko umuyede we abasha kumuha itafari 1 mu munota, urumva ko umufundi aba iri gupfa ubusa, n’ubundi inzu yuzura itinze, ni nkuko kwa processor yihuta ariko ram ari ntoya). rero mu gihe ufite processor yihuta ugomba kumenya ko ukeneye na RAM nini

Niba nta bintu bihambaye uzakoresha imashini yawe, RAM ya 4GB irahagije (gusura internet, kureba film, gukina utu games tutaremereye, kwandika documents n'utundi tuntu tutagoye) niba uri umwe muri ba bantu navuze ruguru bakenera imashini z’akazi zihambaye 4GB ntizihagije, bo bahera  8GB kuzamuka


STORAGE (HARD DISK)

Hard disk yo ni ku giti cyawe, kuko hard disk ikoreshwa mu kubika ibintu byawe muri mudasobwa.  500GB zirahagije kuri mudasobwa yawe personal gusa hari abarira ngo ni nkeya, hari abo mbona babika amafilim nk’igihumbi yanarangije kureba, n’imiziki  ishyano ryayo, niba utari umu DJ cyangwa udacuruza amafilm n’imiziki kandi Atari na archive(ububiko) uri gukora kuki wamara space memory  yawe, ubundi baravuga ngo “ikintu cyose ushobora gukura kuri internet bitakugoye igihe cyose(imiziki n’amafilm) singombwa ko kigutwarira space yawe mu mashini, kireke kuri internet nugishaka uzakihafata”, ujye ubika documents zawe z'ingenzi n'ibindi wenda uzi ko wabonye bikugoye. Kuri ba bantu bakora akazi gakenera imashini zifite ingufu banakenera kubika ibindi bintu bitwara umwanya munini cyane cyane aba graphic Desinger, n'abakora amavideo  bo wenda bakenera Hard Disk ya 1TB (Tera Byte) kuzamura


NSHASHYA CYANGWA SECOND HAND ?

Nabyo ugomba kubyitaho, kubera inaha ikibazo cy’ubukungu kiba kuri benshi akenshi bahitamo kugura Second hand kurusha uko bagura ibishya. Ibishya ntawushidikanya ko hano aribyo byiza ariko nabyo birahenda, gusa nanone simvuze ko wagura Second hand nayo iba ifite risk nyinshi cyane, ntuba uzi uwo yavuyeho
icyatumye ayirekura, niba itaramuteshaga umutwe, niba Atari injurano, niba bataragiye bayikuramo bimwe na bimwe bakabisimbuza, n’ibindi byiinshi. Gusa hari abazigurisha bakaguha facture na garanti nabwo n’ikindi cyizere


YAKOZWE RYARI?

Kumenya igihe computer yawe yakorewe nabyo ni ingenzi kuko niba ari iya kera bivuze ko itazabasha gukomezanya na technology nshyashya ziri kuza kuko ikoranabuhanga ririhuta, nkubu natangwazwa nuko wajya kugura imashini ukagura nkiyakozwe mbere yaza 2010.


BRAND

Mudasobwa yakozwe n’iyihe kompanyi?, nubwo iyi Atari iturufu, ariko nayo wayirebaho. kugira mudasobwa ifite brand izwi bigufasha mu gihe yagize ibibazo kuko kubona ubufasha biroroha haba muba technician kuba yahita abona nka screen yawe akayisimbuza mu gihe iyo wari ufite wayimennye no kuri internet kubona abo muhuje utubazo batunze mudasobwa nkiyawe bakaba bagufasha. nka Brand za apple, HP na Dell zirazwi cyane


USB 3

Iyo witegereje specifications za USB port ziba kuri mudasobwa ugiye kugura ubonaho version ya USB ziriho niba ari USB 2 cyangwa USB 3,   usb 3 ni nshya kandi ifite ubushobozi bwo gutwara ibintu byinshi vuba kurusha USB2,  zimwe muri mudasobwa ziri kwisoko usanga zifite nka USB ports Ebyiri cg eshatu hari izigira enye, gusa ujye ureba ko muri izo USB enye zose harimo byibuze imwe ya Version ya 3. Nutanayibona nabyo ntibyaba ikibazo


SIZE

Ingano ya mudasobwa yawe, niba uri umunyamingara uzahitami aga computer gatoya, niba ibyo ntacyo bikubwiye uzafata ikora. Gusa uko kaba gato kanakora neza cyane wumve ko ari nako igiciro cyiyongera (simvuze twa Mini Laptop)


KEYBOARD

Keyboard yo si ngombwa cyane, ipfa kuba inyunguti zose dukenera twandika ziriho, ururimi yaba irimo rwose wayikoresha, gusa niba nabyo ubyitaho, ntakibazo wabireba

ibi ubirebyeho cyane cyane 5 bibanza wabasha kwigurira modasobwa nziza cyane 

FireFox Quantum

Niba ukunda gukoresha internet kuri mudasobwa nemeza neza ko ushobora kuba ukoresha Browser ya Mozilla FireFox cyangwa se Google Chrome, chrome ikaba isa nkigira udushya twinshi kurusha FireFox. bikaniyongeraho ko chrome yihuta kurusha firefox, gusa nayo ikagira ikibazo kimwe cyane cyuko ikenera umwanya munini kuri RAM bigatuma nabwo iyo usanzwe ufite mudasobwa ifite aka RAM gato n'ubundi birangira chrome ntacyo ikumariye usibye gutinza mudasobwa yawe.

inkuru yanditswe kuri blog ya Mozilla kuri uyu wa kabiri w'icyi cyumweru batangake ko bagiye gusohora Firefox version ya 57 izaba yitwa FireFox Quantum.  uyu mushinga bari bawutangaje mu mpera z'umwaka ushize mu kwezi kwa cumi ko bagiye guhindura byinshi muri engine  FireFox ikoresha mugiye uri gusura imbuga za internet.  bakavuga ko izaba yihuta mu muvuduko kurusha FireFox twari dusanzwe dukoresha 

kamwe mu dushya ifitemo nako bita "Pocket", pocket ikaba ari application mozilla yaguze umwaka ushize ituma mu gihe uri kuri internet uri gusoma inkuru runaka, firefox izajya ikwereka n'izindi zisa nayo zishobora kuba zagushishikaza, maze ikaguha ubushobozi bwo kuba wana savinga izo nkuru ukaza kuzisoma nyuma utakiri kuri internet (offline)

ubu ngubu FireFox Quantum iri muri beta version, (Beta version bivuze ko ikiba ikiri mw'igeragezwa (test), itarashyirwa hanze kumugaragaro biri official, muri test nibwo baba bakosora udukosa twanyuma twose yaba ifite, gusa ntibivuze ko uramutse uyishatse utayibona, kuko nubundi test bayishyira hanze kugira ngo abantu babikunze bayikoreshe nihagira aho bahurira natwa dukosa navugaga aritwo bakunda kwita bugs, babitangaze mozilla ibikosore mbere yuko iyishyira hanze  version iri stable)

niba ushaka kumanura FireFox Quantum beta version wa kanda aha

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Twitter Igiye Kongera Umubare w'inyuguti za Tweet

Ku muntu usanzwe akoresha Facebook iyo akigera kuri twitter nicyo kintu cyambere kimugora, kuba yakwandika ibyo ashaka kuvuga byose mu nyuguti zitarenze 140, kubera akamenyero ko kwandika ibyo ashaka byose agapostinga kuri wall ye ya facebook , twitter yo ntikwemerera kurenza inyuguti 140 mu gihe ugiye gutweetinga.

Byahereye kera abakoresha twitter bavuga ko izi nyuguti ari nke kuburyo zidahagije ngo umuntu abe yavugamo ibyo yifuza byose hakiyongeraho nuko abakoresha twitter bahora basaba ko bakongererwaho uburyo bwo kuba wakosora ibyo wanditse nabi (edit button), ni ukuvunga ngo twitter ntiyemera niba wanditse nabi tweet yawe ko uyikosora nkuko facebook yemera ko ukosora ibyo wanditse nabi, twitter ikwemerera gusiba gusa, ntabyo gukosora. Gusa kuri iyi nshuro bemeye kuzamura umubare wa ziriya nyuguti gusa. 

Nk'uko byatangajwe kuri Blog ya twitter ejo tariki ya 26 bavuze ko bagiye kugerareza ubu buryo bushya bwa tweet ifite inyuguti 280 mu ndimi zose ukuyemo igishinwa, ikiyapani, n’ikinyakorea kuko ngo izi ndimi uko ari eshatu kubera uburyo zandikwa ushobora kwandika igitekerezo kinini ukoresheje inyuguti nke cyane bitagoye, niyo mpamvu zo zitarimo.
Gusa iri geregeza rikaba ritari buhere ku muntu wese ukoresha twitter, ahubwo harimo abantu bake b'ingenzi batoranyijwe b'ibikomerezwa kuri twitter bagiye kugeragerezwaho izi mpinduka.

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

[Igice cya 3] Bimwe Mubyo CIA na NSA Zikoresha Bishyirwa Hanze na Wikileaks

Mu gice cya 2 cyananjirije iki twagarukiye kuri High Rise, (niba aribwo bwa mbere usomye iyi nkuru, utarigeze usoma n’igice cyayo cya mbere wakanda aha ugahera ku cya mbere)

UCL / Raytheon

Tariki 19 Nyakanga , wikileaks yashyize hanzwe icyiswe UCL/Raytheon, zikaba zari documents z’ikigo cyitwa Raytheon Blackbird technologies gikorana na CIA (nacyo gikora nk’umucontractor), zari zikubiyemo uburyo bwinshi butanduka abahackers bakunda gukoresha mu gihe bari gukora za virus na Malware, maze CIA na NSA zikaba zabyifashisha mu kugira ngo nazo zibe zakubakira kuri ibyongibyo zikore malwares zihambaye. Virus na malwares nyinshi za kera (Atari kera cyane, nuko mw’isi ya technology ijyanye na internet byibuze imyaka itanu irahagije kuba bavuga ko ikintu ari technology ya kera) ushobora kuba wabona source codes zazo kuri internet nawe ukaba wakubakiraho indi virus ihambaye uramutse ubifitiye ubushobozi (niba ushishikajwe no kureba uko wa kwiga gukora virus ya mudasobwa wasoma inkuru twanditse ibivugaho ukanze aha). Izi documents rero icyo zabafashaga kwari ukuba bo noneho bakwiga zimwe muri malware zakozwe n’abahacker bakomeye nuko bagiye babikora nabo bakubakira kuri izo nzira bagakora ikintu gikomeye

Imperial

Yashyizwe hanze tariki 27 Nyakanga, ikaba yari igizwe n’ibice bitatu aribyo Archilles, Aeris, SeaPea.

aho Archilles ikora kuri mudasobwa za Mac OS akaba ari uburyo ufata Disk Image (.dmg) umuntu aba agiye kwenstalla muri mudasobwa ye maze ukabanza iyo disk image ukayishyirami archilles ku buryo igihe cyose ari burangize kwenstalla iyo Disk Image ye uraba umufite atabizi, kuko araba muri iyo installation ye yashyizemo archille atabizi, ikaba yarakozwe muri 2011
SeaPea nayo igakora muri ubwo buryo bwo kwigarurira mudasobwa ya Mac OS ariko yo ikaba ari RootKit, nayo yakozwe mu mwaka wa 2011
Aeris yo yakorewe mudasobwa za Linux zirimo Operating System nka (Debian, CentOS, RedHat na FreeBSD)

Dumbo

Yasohotse tariki 3 Kanama, Dumbo ni malware ikoreshwa mu kuba wakwinjirira ibigo bi recording video, nka za camera zo ku mihanda, cyangwa camera zo mu mazu akomeye, maze ukaba washobora kuba izo video wazi manipula ukazikora ibyo ushaka nko gusiba uduce tumwe mubyo izo camera zafashe, ugasimbuzaho ibyo wifuza nibindi bigendanye nabyo, si n’amashusho gusa wanakoresha dumbo mu kumanipila amajwi (audio) yafashwe na Microphone , gusa Dumbo isaba kuyitwara nko ku ga Flash Disk, ukaba wacomeka kuri mudasobwa ushaka kwangiza ibyo birimo, ukongeraho ko ikora mu gihe iyo mudasobwa irimo Windows

CouchPotato

Tariki 10 Kanama, CouchPotato yo ikora mu kuba wakwiba video za camera runaka uba utemerewe kugeraho, cyane cyane ziriya camera zo ku muhanda ziba kenshi zicometse kuri internet nubwo Atari zose, muri ubwo buryo ushobora kuririraho ukabasha kuba wa zihackinga ukoresheje CouchPotato maze amashusho ziba ziri gufata nawe ukaba wayabika, ukanayareba utayemerewe, yo ntisaba ko ugera aho iyo camera iri nkuko Dumbo yayibanjirirje yo isaba ko ugera kuri control room irimo mudasobwa zikontrolla izo camera
Ushaka gukoresha CouchPotato ushoboa gusoma uko ikora ahangaha 


ExpressLane

24 Kanama 2017, ExpressLane yaje ari igitangaza kuko ntago byari bizwi ko CIA ineka ibindi bigo ikarana nayo kuko nibwo kuri iyi tariki ya 24 nibwo wikileaks yagaragaje ko CIA nayo yiba information nyinshi zitandukanye hakubiyemo abakozi babikoramo, ibyo baba bari gukora mubigo byikora indi mirimo ijyanye n’ubutasi muri USA nka NSA, FBI, na DHS

OTS ni agashami gakorera muri CIA, kabika amakuru y’ubuzima (biometric data) ku bakozi bose bakora mu rwego rw’ubutasi rwa Amerika n’ukuvuga birimo bigo twavuze ruguru birimo byose, gusa CIA bikagaragaa ko itanyuzwe nayo makuru gusa, ahubwo yatwaye n’ibindi byinshi bitari byitezwe yuririye kuri icyo gikorwa

Angelfire

Tariki 31 Kanama, Angelfire ikaba igizwe n’uduce twinshi (Solartime, Wolfcreek, Keystone, BadMFS, na Windows Transitory File system) ikora akazi nkako za Grasshopper, na AfterMidNight twabonye mubice byabanje, ni framework igufasha kwigaruri mudasobwa irimo windows kuburyo na antivirus itabimenya

Protego

Ikaba ari nayo iheruka ubwo twandikaga iyi nkuru yasohotse mu cyumweru gishize tariki 7 nzeri, Protego nayo yaje ari rurangiza kuko yo si tool bakoresha ba hacking cyangwa ngo ibe malware bakoresha, ahubwo ni system bakoresha bayobora ibisasu byo mu bwoko bwa missile (Missile Control System), nta bintu byinshi tuvuga kuri protego kuko isaba ubumenyi buhambaye mu ikoranabuhanga rijyanye na Electronic cyane, gusa ni byagushishikaje cyane aho hasi hari ifoto ya Circuit Board yuko iyi Protego ikoze


Tukaba twagarukira aha, gusa uko iminsi izegenda yicuma ni nako wikileaks igenda ikomeza gushyira hanze n’ibindi byinshi, nabwo tuzakomeza tuzibagezaho uko zizagera hanze

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Sobanukirwa: Bitcoins

Ushobora kuba umaze iminsi wumva ifaranga riri gufata indi ntera muri iyi minsi bita Bitcoins gusa ntubashe gusobanura icyo aricyo mubyukuri no muburyo bwimbitse, muri iyi nkuru tugiye kureba ibibazo abantu bose bashyashya kuri bitcoins bakunda kwibaza n’ibisubizo byabyo mu mvugo itagoranye itarimo namagambo ya tekinike cyane:

Bitcoins n’iki?

Bitcoins ni ubwoko bw’amafranga bita Cryptocurrency, (cryptocurrency ni nyinshi aho tuvugira aha, nawe ubishoboye wandika codes za mudasobwa ushobora gukora Cryptocurrency yawe, maze ukagorwa nuko wabanza kuyemeza abantu ko bayikoresha kandi bakayizera, nkuko abantu kugira ngo ifaranga rigire agaciro bisaba ko bose babyemeranyaho ko koko rifite agaciro), gusobanukirwa bitcoins rero bisaba ko ubanza ugasobanukirwa cyrptocurrency


CryptoCurrency n’iki?

Nkuko mbivuze ko bitcoins ari ubwoko bwa cyrptocurrency, cyrptocurrency ni ubwoko bw’amafranga buri electonic, n’ukuvuga ngo ntibisaba ko uba ufite inoti mu ntoki zawe cyangwa ibiceri nkaya mafranga tumenyereye kugira ngo ube wabasha kugura no kugurana ikintu ushaka kw’isoko, gusa cryptocurrency ikagira umwihariko kuko nubundi ubungubu twatangiye gukoresha amafranga menshi ari electronic. dusigaye twishyura umuriro, amazi, irembo n’izindi serivice nyinshi dukoresheje Mobile Money, airtel money, tigoCash, aya yose ni amafranga ari electronic cyangwa digital money uko wabyita kose, gusa nti tuba tuyafite mu ntoki ariko tubasha kugura no kwishyura tuyakoresheje 

Cryptocurrency nayo ni digital money gusa ifite umwihariko wambere wuko, bidakenewe ko mugira umuntu ubaba hagati mu gihe murimo muragura (uwo muntu ubari hagati mugihe mugura munagurana ni ibigo by’ubucuruzi, amabanki, na leta), 

 
Reka dufate urugero ruto kugira ngo wumve ukuntuiyo uguze cyangwa ugurishije buri gihe hagati yanyu haba harimo umuntu wa gatatu akenshi,
Iyo wishyuye umumotari wagutwaye kuri moto ukoresheje Tigocash wenda, iryo hererekana ry’amafranga(transaction) umwishyuye hagati yanyu haba harimo Tigo, kuko igira amafranga ikataho. iyo uguze umwenda mwiduka harimo amafranga y’umusoro (leta iba ibarimo hagati). iyo uguze ikintu ushaka ukishyura ukoresheshe ikarita yawe ya ATM (debit card, credit card) banki iba irimo hagati. bigatuma leta ishobora gu controlla ubukungu bw’igihugu nuko amafranga angenda mu gihugu. ni muri ubwo buryo Cryptocurrency yo ibanza igakuramo uwo muntu ubarimo hagati

Icya kabiri kandi cy’ingenzi gituma itandukana na digital money zindi dusanzwe tuzi(Mobile Money), nuko bidasaba ko uwaguze n’uwagurishije bamenyekana, (wa mu motari navuze ruguru iyo umwishyuye Tigo isigarana umwirondo wawe na nuwo wishyuye, amafranga wamwishyuye nigihe wabikoreye bityo transaction yawe ikaba ibitswe nawa muntu wa 3. wa mwenda navuze uguze mwiduka bakwandikira facture n’amafranga wishyuye, Rwanda revenue Iyo ije gu controlla imenya ko wa mucuruzi yakugurishije umwenda amafaranga runaka. ya karita yawe ya ATM navuze ukoresha wishyura, banki yawe imenya ko wishyuye runaka igihe runaka). ibyo byose bituma hagati bisa nkaho leta imenya ubukungu bw’abantu bayo, ibyo bagura, bikana kubitiraho ko iba ifite ubushobozi bwo kumenya amafranga babitse muri banki n’ibindi byinshi. Cryptocurrency yo ntiba ishaka ko umenya uwaguze cyangwa uwagurishije (keretse mu gihe uwaguze nuwagurishije bashatse kubibamenyesha) cyangwa n’ingano y’amafranga atunze mw’ikofi ye ya cryptocurrency (nubwo idafatika)


Ubwo se Bitcoins ziremewe?

Kubera ko mvuze ko ikoreshwa rya bitcoins rikuraho wa muntu wa gatatu ugenga ubucuruzi hagati y’abantu(leta Akenshi), ushobora kuba uhise utekereza ko buriya gukoresha aya mafranga bitewe, kuko byazarangira leta itakigira ubushobozi k’ubukungu bw’abaturage bayo kuko nta misoro iba ikiboneka, abantu baba basigaye bagura banagurana leta ntibimenye.


Ubungubu ibihugu byinshi ntibyari byemeza gufata bitcoins nk’amafranga yakoreshwa mu gihugu imbere, gusa nanone ibyinshi ntibyana gufunga ngo nuko waguze cyangwa wagurishije muri bitcoins, mu gihe uwo mwaguze yemera ko umwishyura muri bitcoins, cyangwa uwo wakoreye akazi akwishyura muri bitcoins hagati yanyu, leta nta tegeko ihashyira ribihana, nkuko ushobora gukorera umuntu mukumvikana ko ari buguhembe ibiro 5 by’ibishyimbo bitewe nakazi wakoze, leta ntiyabyivangamo
No mu myaka mike ishize nigeze kumva ko Simba supermarket igiye gutangira kwemera kuba wayishyura ibyo uguze ukoresheje bitcoins nkuko wakwishyura mu manyarwanda cyangwa amadollars, gusa sinigeze nkurikirana ngo menye koko niba barabitangije


Cryptocurrency ko wavuze ko ari nyinshi, izikoreshwa cyane ni izihe?   

Kubera ko gukora cyptocurrency navuze ko bishoboka (nubwo bisaba ubuhanga bwinshi mu mibare na mudasobwa) byanatumye habsho cyrptocurrency ubu zigera muri 400, harimo izo nakwita ko zagafashe zikoreshwa n’abantu benshi harimo bitcoins, Litecoin, Dash, BlackCoin, Etherium, Monero, Zcash n’izindi nyinshi
Gusa kubera ko bitcoins arizo zabayeho mbere zikanamenyekana cyane byatumye imvugo Bitcoins na Cryptocurrency bisa nkibikoreshwa ahantu hamwe, kuko iyo uvuze cryptocurrency abantu bumva bitcoins, wanavuga Bitcoins bakumva CryptoCurrency nubwo hari cryptocurrency nyinshi


Bitcoins zikoreshwa cyane na bande?

Kubera kuba zifite umwihariko wo kuba leta itamenya ngo uwaguze ni uyu, cyangwa yaguze ibi, cyangwa konti ye isigayeho amafranga angina atya, bituma bitcoins zikunda gukoreshwa cyane nabantu bingeri zitandukanye ngiye kuvuga: 


•    Abantu bacuruza ibintu bitemewe (intwaro, ibiyobyabwenge, abantu) bagura banagurisha, leta ntizigera imenya ngo amafranga miliyoni runaka yavuye kuri konti ya runaka yoherezwa kw’isoko ryo mu burusiya kugurayo intwaro kuko si konti ya banki yakoreshejwe hahererekanywa ayo mafranga ngo banki ibibike izabikoreshe nki kimenyetso mugihe haba habayeho ibibazo
•    Abantu baba bahunza imitungo yabo (ibi bikunda kuba ku bakire baba bafite imitungo myinshi batinya ko rimwe bizahinduka leta igafatira imitungo yabo, cyangwa konti zabo z’amabanki zigafungwa, bagahitamo kuba amafranga yabo bayabika muri bitcoins aho nta numwe uzigera agufatira ibyawe)
•    Aba Hackers, kubera ko isi ya internet yateye imbere, abahackers bagira ibyo bakora bagasaba amafranga, cyangwa kugira ngo bagire icyo bagukorera bisaba ko ubishyura, ntago bakira aya mafranga asanzwe agenzurwa n’ibigo by’ubucuruzi n’amabanki na za leta yatuma bakurikiranwa bagafatwa, bahitamo gukoresha bitcoins cg izindi cryptocurrency
•    Abantu baba bakora ishora mali, kubera ukuntu bitcoins zisigaye zikunzwe kubera umwihariko wazo byatumye zizamuka mu gaciro cyane bihambaye, bityo rero bigatuma hari abazigura bari nko kw’isoko ry’ivunjisha bategereje igihe bitcoins zizamuka igiciro bakabona kugurisha, bikaba business

Gusa muri rusange abantu bakoresha bitcoins cyangwa cryptocurrency iyariyo yose baba bashaka kuba leta na biriya bigo by’imali bitaba controlla mu bucuruzi bwabo (bwaba bwemewe cyangwa butemewe), naho ku babikora nka business bo ni ukunguka.


Ni gute nabona Bitcoins?

Kubona bitcoins ni nkuko ubona andi mafranga, uburyo ukoresha ubona amafranga ninabwo wakoresha ubona bitcoins, bitcoins rero ushobora no kuyibona:
Wishyuwe umushahara ku kazi, cyangwa mubucuruzi ukora
Wayahawe n’inshuti yawe cyangwa abo mu muryango wawe
Wavunjishije kw’isoko ryivunjisha
Watsindiye igihembo bishyura muri bitcoins
N’ubundi buryo bwinshi

uramutse ubikunze kandi ubifitiye ubushobozi nakugira inama yo kugura Bitcoins cyangwa Etherium kuko aya mafaranga afite ingufu muri iyi minsi, nka nyuma y’umwaka aho nandikiye iyi nkuru agaciro etherium yari ifite uyu munsi kazaba ki kubye nk’incuro hafi eshatu (2.6) ikimenyetso cyerekana ifaranga rifite agaciro, gusa business yose ni risk utegenya byose, nkuko ushobora kubika mw’ifaranga ry’urwanda cyangwa irindi iryariryo ryose ukagira ibyago rigata agaciro ngo baaah, amafranga yawe akaba abaye ubusa, ninako n’irindi faranga ryose byaribaho. Bitewe n’impamvu nyinshi zitandukanye
Gusa Etherium irimo irazamuka neza (uyiguze, you will thank me later)

Ntago njya muri details zuko watunga bitcoins kuko inkuru yari ugusobanura, mu nkuru yacu itaha tuzavuga byinshi uko ushobora gutunga bitcoins cyangwa indi cryptocurrency yose wifuza, uko wajya umenya agaciro karyo uko kameze, igura n’igurisha, ndetse na details nyinshi ziri technique zuko cryptocurrency zikora, hari ikibazo waba wifuza kubaza kuri bitcoins cyangwa cryptocurrency muri rusange watwandikira kuri ktimezrwanda@gmail.com



by BahatiPhill in Tech News

kompanyi Zikomeye Mu Ikoranabuhanga Naho Zikura Amafaranga

Companyi z’ubucuruzi zose ziba zifite ahantu hingenzi zikura amafranga kugira ngo zikomeze gukora, uyu munsi tugiye kuvuga kuri company 5 zambere zikora mu bijyanye na technology naho zikura amafranga hingenzi twifashishije urutonde twakuye k’urubuga rwandika ku makuru y’ubukungu BUSINESS INSIDER:

1.APPLE

63 %: iPhone (ubucuruzi bwa telephone ikora za iPhone)
11 %: service icuruza nka Apple music, n’izindi nyinshi
11 %: Mac (mudasobwa zikorwa na apple)
10 %: iPod(udukoresho bumviraho umuziki)
5 % : ibindi bisigaye byose


2.ALPHABET (Google)

88 %: ads (Kwamamaza) mafranga yose google yinjiza hafi ya yose iyakuru mu kwamamaza
11 %: service icuruza nka za Google cloud Engine, nibindi
1 %: ibindi byose ikora bisigaye ubihurije hamwe



3.  MICROSOFT

28 %: Microsoft office (nubwo abenshi tuyikoresha ku buntu abandi barazigura)
22 %: windows Servers & Azure (uburyo busa nko gukodesha mudasobwa zihambaye ibindi bigo by’ikoranabuhanga)
11 %: Xbox, izi akaba ari imashini bakiniraho ama games zikunzwe cyane n’urubyiruko
9 %: Windows (operating System za Windows, xp, vista, 7, 8, 10)
7 %: ads (kwamamaza)
5 %: Surface (mudasobwa zikorwa na Microsoft)
18 %: ibindi byose bisigaye


4.  AMAZON : (umuherwe wayo Jeff Bezos akaba ubu ari we usigaye ukurikira bill gate)

72 %: ubucuruzi bw’ibintu bitandukanye
18 %: Media, aho ifite company zikora mu bintu by’imyidagaduro, nka studio z’amafilm
9 %: AWS (Amazon Web Services), nabyo bijya gusa nka Microsoft azure, uburyo bwo gutiza mudasobwa zikora akazi gahambaye ibindi bigo
1 % : ibindi


5.    FACEBOOK

97 % : kwamamaza (ads)
3 % : ibisigaye byose

Bisa nkaho Microsoft yonyine ari yo ifite ahantu henshi hatandukanye ikura amafaranga, naho mu gihe izindi nka Google na Facebook zo hafi amafranga yose zinjiza ava mu kwamamaza naho Apple na Amazon bakayakura mu bucuruzi


by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Twiyungure ubumenyi ku modoka Zitwara (Self-Driving Cars)

Niba ukunda gukurikira amakuru y'ibijyanye n'ikoranabuhanga, amahirwe menshi nuko usanzwe uzi inkundura iri mu gukora imodoka zitwara isigaye irii hagati ya kompanyi zikomeye mu gukora amamodoka n'izitayakora muri izi kompanyi zimaze igihe ziri muri iyi business navugamo nka Google, Uber, Tesla , Nissan n'izindi nyinshi.

Kugeza n'aho izi kompanyi zisigaye zijyanana mu nkiko ziregana kwibana ikoranabuhanga abandi bakoresha, nk'ubungubu google na Uber rurageretse kubera uko kwibana ikoranabuhanga ry'uko abandi bakora.

N'ubwo izi modoka inyinshi ziba zikiri mu mageragezwa, hamwe zatangiye gukoreshwa zitwara abagenzi muri leta zimwe na zimwe muri USA, kuko ibi bigo byinshi bibanza gusaba uburenganzira muri izo leta kugira ngo byemererwe gukoreramo, nk'uko ushobora kujya ku muhanda ugatega taxi voiture, nazo ushoboa kuyihamagara aho uri ukoresheje telephone (abakoresha SafeMoto barabizi)  maze nayo aho iri ikaza ikagusanga, ukicaramo ukayibwira aho ugiye nayo ikakujyana nta nkomyi ikakugezayo, 

Urugero, Google ifite ako nakwita ishami ryayo rikora izi modoka zitwara kitwa Waymo, zimwe mu modoka gakora ziba zifite ikintu hejuru kiriho sensors naza lasers, n'akantu gakora nka radar, na camera igenda yikaraga byihuse maze gakora ibyo nakwita nko guscanning aho iherereye n'ibiyegereye , ese birahagaze?, ese biri kugenda?, ese bifite umuvuduko ungana ute niba birimo bigenda?. ibi byose ibikora ibara kugira ngo hatagira icyo iza kugonga cyangwa guhutaza mu nzira nayo irimo igendamo, bigakubitaniraho ko nanone igihe igeze muri feux rouge imenya kureba ariya matara niba ari icyatsi igakomeza niba ari umutuku igahagarara, nku'ko umushoferi abikora, icy'ingenzi kandi gitangaje ni uko izi modoka iyo umuntu aje azisatira zo zimubona zigahagarara, bivuze ko niyo yaba iri mumuhanda umuntu akambuka atarebye irahagarara agatambuka yamara kugenda igakomeza nayo, gukora impanuka nuko gusa wowe wayigonga 


imodoka yitwara ya Waymo


kuba izi kompanyi nyinshi ziri kurwanira kugeza ku isoko izi modoka zitwara nuko zifite inyungu nyinshi cyane bazabikuramo, mu gihe izi modoka zakomeza kwiyongera kuburyo zagera n'aho zitangira gucuruzwa ku masoko nubwo bikiri kure bisa nk'ibyagabanya impanuka cyane cyane iziterwa n'abatwara imodoka basinze, cyangwa bafite umunaniro mwinshi ubatera gusinzira.

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Uburyo bumwe bwagufasha kwangiza mudasobwa. (Kwiga tutagamije kwangiza)

Reka turebe uko twakoresha ubumenyi dufite maze twangize imashini, Ubu tugiye gukora igisa na Virus nubwo atari virus nzima mubyukuri. Ntituri bukore iyo kwangiza bikomeye, kwangiza ni bibi, (iyo kwangiza bikomeye mvuga ni nk'imwe ishobora kugenda muri mudasobwa igashakamo icyitwa umuziki cyose kibitsemo ikagisiba mu kanya nk'ako guhumbya, cyangwa ikareba documents za word na excel, cyangwa ubundi bwoko bwose bwa  files wayitegetse gusiba)

Twe tugiye kureba uko watesha umutwe nyiri mudasobwa ukora ama folders menshi mu mudasobwa ye bidasabye ko wowe ugenda ukanda za right click -> Create New folder, oya ibyo byadutera umwanya, ahubwo turakora ako nakwita nka ka virus koroheje kuburyo kagenda ibyo dushaka byose kakabidukorera mugihe kitarenze umunota umwe maze ukaba uteje akaduruvayo muri mudasobwa y’abandi

Muri ubu buryo turakoresha icyo bita batch file, batch files n’iki rero?   Batch file ni uburyo ushobora gukoresha niba ukoresha mudasobwa za windows (kuko batch file ntago zikora muri linux naza macOS) maze ukaba wategeka mudasobwa gukora ibintu byinshi automatically, ni ukuvuga ngo muri batch file wandikamo commands zose wifuza ko mudasobwa iza kugukorera vuba byihuse, wa runninga iyo batch file ikabikora byose vuba, batch file bayi savinga kuri extension ya .bat

Ubu nibwo buryo tugiye kwifashisha hano dukora ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'amafolder arimo ubusa mu kanya gato, ntago ari ubufindo cyangwa ibitangaza bindi, Batch file ushobora gushyiramo ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'amacommands ushaka ko imashini ikora, bitewe n’ibyifuzo byawe, gusa twe mugukora ibi twifuje, batch file yacu ntabwo iza kuba irengeje imirongo ine.

Twagiye rero, fungura Notepad yawe kuko niyo turi bukoreshe twandika izo commands maze tuze no kubi savinga.

  1. Notepad niba warangije kuyifungura umurongo wambere andikamo   "@echo off"
  2. Ukande enter kugira ngo ujye ku murongo ukurikiyeho, maze naho uhandike uti   ":top"   maze ukande enter ujye ku murongo ukurikiyeho
  3.  Andika uti:        "md %random%"     ukande enter
  4. Ku murongo wa kane ari nawo wanyuma andika uti      "Goto top"

Ni ukuvuga ngo urasigarana notepad yawe iraba yanditsemo gutya:

@echo off

:top

md %random%

Goto top


Nsobanuye nihuse izi commands uko ari enye icyo zikora:

echo off” icyo ikora ni ukubwira programu yacu nifunguka ize gukora bucece muri background, ntifunguke ngo igaragare (echo off),

umurongo wa kabiri wo uravuga ngo “:top”, aka kantu ka “:” kagufasha gushyiraho position runaka ushobora kuza kugarukaho mu gihe ubyifuza muri programu, imirongo aho yaba igezeho yose, ushobora kongera kugaruka hariya,

umurongo wa “md %random%”, aha niho igikorwa cyacu kibera ,iriya command ya  md” ikoreshwa mu gukora forlder nshyashya, bimwe navugaga bya Right Click -> create new folder,  ‘md’ ni uburyo bwo kubikora ukoresheje command, naho kariya kajambo ka %random% ko ni izina rya folder uba ugiye gukora, ni ukuvuga ngo urugero wenda wanditse command ivuga iti “md ktimez” uba ukoze folder yitwa ktimez, naho kuba kuriya twashyizeho %random%, nukuvuga ko izajya ifata folder ikayita izina ry'umubare uri random (yihitiyemo itomboje)

umurongo wa kane ari nawo wanyuma wo ni “Goto top”, ubwiye programu gusubira kuri wa murongo wa top, bimwe navugaga,  ni ukuvuga ngo program yacu izajya ifunguka nimara gukora folder yayise izina riri random, nigera kumurongo wa kane ihite isanga umurongo wa kane uri kuyibwira ngo subira kumurongo wa 2, maze isubire inyuma yongere ikore indi random folder gutyo, gutyo bibe loop idahagarara kugeza igihe iriya random yacu izagera aho ikabura amazina mashya yita folders nshyashya iri gukora.

Icyanyuma usigaje ni ugu savinga file yawe, uyi savinge kuri desktop uyite izina ushaka gusa icyo utagomba kwibagirwa nuko uyi savinga ifite extension format ya “.bat” nk'uko nabivuze ruguru,  ni ukuvuga ngo niba uyise ktimez wenda, bivuze ko kuri desktop uraza ku yi savinga yitwa “ktimez.bat

Niba warangije gu saving ntakindi gisigaye usibye gukora ibara maze desktop tukayangiza. Genda ukande double click kuri ya file kugira ngo ifunguke ikore ibyo twayitumye, nyuma ya kanya ko guhumbya desktop yawe urasanga yuzuyeho ama folder utarangiza arimo ubusa, n'ibyari bihari ubibure kuko byabaye byinshi bijyakure, umuntu utabizi ashobora no kugira ngo mudasobwa ye ibintu byisibye hazamo ibindi bidasobanutse.


dore uko Desktop yanjye yabaye

Ni gutyo aka virus kacu gato gakora. Twabibutsa ko ibi bigamije kwiyungura ubumenyi atari ku mpamvu zo kwangiza cyangwa guhemukirana. 

[Igice cya 2] Bimwe Mubyo CIA na NSA Zikoresha Bishyirwa Hanze na Wikileaks

Mu gice kibanza twabagejejeho ku murungo uko programu za mudasobwa NSA na CIA zikoresha zinjira mu bikoresho bya electronic ku isi hose, hakubiyemo amatelephone, SmartTV, Mudasobwa, n'ibindi byinshi zagiye zishyirwa hanze na wikileaks n'uko zagiye zisohoka zikurikirana, tukaba twari tugeze ku yasohotse muri Gicurasi bita Archemedes. 

niba aribwo bwa mbere usomye iyi nkuru, wabanza ukajya gusoma igice cyayo cyabanje ukanze aha


After Midnight

Yasohotse kuwa 12 Gicurasi, isohoka hamwe ifatanye n'indi bita "Assassin" zikaba zo zari mu bwoko bwa Malwares (niba udasobanukiwe na malware kanda aha, ukabasha kuyisobanukirwa n'itandukaniro ryayo na virus), zikaba zo bazikoresha kuri mudasobwa y'umuntu kugiti cye, nko kuba zajyamo, bakajya bamenya aho uherereye, ibyo wiriwe ukora kuri internet (internet History), ibyo ubitse mu mashini yawe, n'ibindi byinshi bijyanye na mudasobwa y'umuntu kugiti cye (personal Computer)

Athena

Kuwa  19 Gicurasi, athena ikaba yarakozwe ku bufatanye bwa CIA n'ikindi kigo gikora ibijyanye na cyber security bita Siege technology, ikaba nayo yari igamije kwibasira imashini zirimo Operating system ya Windows, guhera kuri  windows Xp kugeza kuri windows iheruka ariyo windows 10


Pandemic

Wikileaks yayishyize hanze kuwa 1 Kamena, ikaba ikora kuburyo imashini yagezemo ishobora gusangiza (share) ibiri muri iyo mashini maze igihe babishakiye bakaba baza kubitwara


Cherry Blossom

Kuwa 15 kamena, cherry blossom, ikoreshwa nayo mu kuba wagenzura (monitoring) ibyo abantu bakoresha wenda wireless runaka bakunda kuba bari gukoresha kuri internet, no kumenya andi makuru menshi y'ibintu bibashishikaza


Brutal Kangaroo

Kuwa 22 kamena, kubera ibigo bimwe bimaze kumenya agaciro k'umutekano wabo n'imashini zabo akenshi hari imashini bahitamo maze bakirinda kuba zagera na rimwe kuri internet bakazirinda batyo (kuko imashini yageze kuri internet uko wakora kose kuyirinda uwagushatse kandi abishoboye ni indi ntambara), ibyo babyita air gaped system, gusa iyi brutal kangaroo yo ikora uburyo ishobora kwiba byinshi bishoboka muri izo air gaped system, aho bakoresha uburyo nko kuba wagenda ugata aga flash disk  kariho iyi malware ku biro bitandukanye by'icyo kigo ushaka kwinjirira, maze uwagatoragura yaba atagira amakenga akaba yagenda agacomeka kuri za mashini ngo arebe ibiri kuri flash (kubera abantu bagira amatsiko), maze imashini akaba ayanduje atyo, ikaba ikora nka Stuxnet ya malware y'abanyamerika yigeze kwinjirira inganda zikora ingufu za nuclear muri Iran mu myaka ishize, icyo kigo nacyo computer zabagamo zari air gaped


ELSA

Ni malware yo bita geo-location malware yibasira ibikoresho bishobora gukoresha Wi-Fi (wireless), cyane cyane imashini zikoresha Windows, ikaba ikora ku buryo iyo imaze kugera mu mashini igenda ikazajya iscanninga aho uri ikamenya wireless zihari ikabika amazina yazo n'andi makuru menshi ahagije kuri izo wireless (navuga nka MAC address ya Access point iri gutanga iyo Wireless), ntibinasaba ko uba uri gukoresha internet, igihe uzakoresha interent, Elsa yiconnectinga kuri database za Google cyangwa Microsoft (ushobora gukoresha izi database umenya ahantu wireless runaka iherereye kuko kuzikoresha ntacyo bagusaba), maze ikabasha kugerageza kumenya aho uherereye neza cyane itibeshye (kuko ikoresha longitude na latitude za wireless ucometseho), kandi waba kure ute ntiwaba kure ya wireless uri gukoresha ngo urenze metero 200. ushaka kumenya uko bakoresha elsa wakanda aha


OutlawCountry

yageze hanze kuwa 30 Kamena, ikaba yibasira imashini zirimo Operating system ya Linux aho outlawCountry iyo imaze kugera muri system ihita ifata traffics zose zisohoka mu mashini zijya kuri internet (outBound traffic) ikajya ibanza kuzinyuza kuri NSA , bayikoresha mu gihe bashaka kumenya umuntu ukoresha iyo mashini ya linux traffic ze za internet, nibyo yirirwa akora kuri internet


BothanSpy

yageze hanze kuwa 6 Nyakanga, zasohotse ari ebyiri BothanSpy na Gyrfalcon zikaba zo zigamije kwiba icyo bita, SSH Credentials, zikaba ari nka keys zikoreshwa muri protocol yitwa SSH  ikoreshwa mu gihe ushaka gukoresha imashini mutari kumwe ariko ari iyawe (Remote Computer), SSH ikaba ikoreshwa cyane mu bantu bahostinga imbuga za internet, imbuga zabo za internet ntiziba ziri mu mashini zabo, bisaba ko bakora nk'icyo nakwita kugura imashini online izajya ihora icanye inafite internet idahagarara (kugira ngo itazima cyangwa ikagenda gake wasura urubuga ukarubura),  muri uko kugura iyo mashini online iyo abakora urubuga bagiye kuyikoresha akenshi bakoresha iyi protocol yitwa SSH, nubwo hari ubundi buryo bwinshi (nka FTP no gukoresha Cpanel). Iyi BothanSpy ikaba ikora uburyo bwo kwiba izi keys zikoreshwa muri ssh


HighRise

Kuwa 13 Nyakanga, HighRise yo ikaba yaragenewe kuneka SmartPhone zikoresha android versions iri hagati ya 4.0 kugeza kuri 4.3 (niba utazi version za android wazisoma kuri iyi nkuru), HighRise ikaba ikora nk'icyo twakwita SMS proxy, ni uburyo iyo smartPhone yawe imaze kwinjirirwa na HighRise,  Highrise ikora uburyo bwo kuzajya ibanza gufata SMS zawe wohereza ukanakira muri telephone yawe (SMS interception) maze ikazohereza nyiri iyi Highrise. ushaka kumenya gukoresha HighRise wajya kuri USER GUIDE yayo.

Duhinire aha tuzasubire mu cyumweru gitaha mu gice cya gatatu ari nacyo gisoza, kizavuga tools zanyuma zasohotse muri aya mezi abiri ashize! 

Database Zikoreshwa Cyane Kurusha Izindi

imbuga za internet, amaprogramu ya mudasobwa,  applications dukoresha muri telephone n'ibindi ntarondoye bikoresha ibyo twita database mu kubika data (amakuru yibyo bikoresha), cyangwa information, kandi izi data zikaba zaboneka igihe zikenerewe gukoreshwa, nk'urugero niba warafunguje konti kw'Irembo, ushobora kuba warinjijemo izina ryawe, aho utuye (umurenge, akarere, intara), numero yawe y'irangamuntu n'ibindi byinshi,  izi data cyangwa information  zawe winjijemo rero kugirango bazibike nigihe cyose uzagarukira ntibazongere kuzikubaza, ngo wongere ubyinjijzemo, Kubibika rero ntakundi bakoresha database mukubika izi data mu gihe kirekire kandi zikazajya zikoreshwa igihe zikenewe.  

Database nubwo hafi ya zose zikora akazi kamwe ko kubika data, ntizibikora kimwe, kandi  zikagira na byinshi zitandukaniraho, Kwisi ubu hari database zigera hafi muri 400, inyinshi kuzikoresha ni ubuntu, nubwo harimo nizo gukoresha bisaba ko uzigura, twavuga nka Oracle Database.

hano tugiye kuvuga Database 5 za mbere zikoreshwa cyane ubungubu, gusa uko ibihe bizagenda bisimburana ninako zizagenda zisimburanwa mu gukoreshwa.


1. Oracle Database: ikaba ari iya company bita Oracle, iyi ngiyi nubwo nigeze kubikomozaho kuyikoresha ntago ari ubuntu, bisaba ko wishyura. gusa ntibiyigabanyiriza kuba ubu ari iyambere nubwo uyu mwanya ihora iwurwanira nizikurikiraho, 

2. MySQL: nkeka ko abanyarwanda benshi biga ibintu bijyanye na computer ariyo bamenye mbere, ikaba ikunzwe cyane kuko yo ni ubuntu kuyikoresha nta kiguzi utanga, bikongeraho ko yagiye inakoreshwa n'imbuga nyinshi zitandukanye kandi zizwi navugamo nka Facebook, na Wikipedia

Icyitonderwa: Akenshi izi mbuga zimaze gukomera nka twitter cyangwa wikipedia tuvuze hano ruguru. inyinshi ntago ziba zikoresha database imwe, kuko baba bafite ibintu byinshi bakora nubwo twe tuba tuzi ngo wenda ni twitter gusa yo gu tweettinga, baba bafite n'izindi services nyinshi bakora, niyo mpamvu akenshi utazajya usanga bakoresha database imwe yonyine, cyangwa ugasanga nyuma y'igihe runaka babonye ko database bakoresheje itagihuje n'ubushobozi bwibyo bashaka gukora bakaba bahindura bagakoresha indi, nkurugero rwa hafi facebook ikoresha nindi database yitwa HIVE nindi bita Cassandra nizindi nyinshi utavamo

3. Microsoft SQL Server:  utayitiranya na mysql nubwo zifite ibyo zihuriyeho ziratandukanye, iyi database ikaba ari iya Microsoft,  zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye ziyikoresha navugamo imbuga za microsoft,  nka Bing nizindi,

4. PostgreSQL: uracyabonamo ijambo SQL rikunda kugaruka cyane, nuko izi zose zihurira ku kintu kimwe cyuko zibika data muma table, iyi postgresql  nayo kuyikoresha nta kiguzi, ikaba nayo ikunzwe cyane. zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye ziyikoresha zavuga nka Yahoo 

5. MongoDB. iyi ikaba ihabanye nizabanje zose kuko yo ntikoresha tables ibika ibintu,  ikaba iri mu bwoko bwa databases bwita "NoSql Database" hamwe na za cassandra navuze ruguru, zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye zikoresha MongoDB wahera kuri iyi Ktimez.com uri gusomaho iyi nkuru, tukavugamo Nokia na Adobe


izindi uko zikurikirana kugeza kuya 10, harimo

6. DB2

7. Microsoft Access (akenshi iyi abantu biga za excel na word  barayiga) 

8. Cassandra

9. Redis

10. ElasticSearch

niya 11 izwi cyane bita SQLite ikaba ikoreshwa cyane muri application za android, niba ufite muri telephone yawe Application ya android kandi ibika amakuru, menya ko inyinyi zikoresha SQLite

ushaka kureba urutonde uko rwifashe nyuma yigihe wakanda aha


Bimwe Mubyo CIA na NSA Zikoresha Bishyirwa Hanze na Wikileaks

Mu ntangiriro z'uyu mwaka wa 2017 nibwo wikileaks yatangaje ko ifite files nama documents menshi yashoboye kubona iyakuye muri NSA(ikigo cy’abanyamerika gikora
ubutasi no kuneka) na CIA, ikavuga ko ayo ma files yose ari ayo hagati ya 2013 kugeza 2016 yagiye ibona binyuze mu buryo butandukanye cyane cyane binyuze ku bantu bita aba whitsleblowers (whitsleblowers ni abantu bagenda bakamena amabanga y'ibintu bibi ibigo baba bakoramo bikora, Edward snowden ni umu whitsleblowers).

Iki gikorwa wikileaks ikaba yaracyise Vault 7,  ariho haje kuva vault 7 series kuko izi documents ntago yazishiriye hanze icyarimwe, ahubwo yagiye itangaza kimwe kimwe mu serie, ubu aho tuvugira ubu serie igeze aho niba twabyita  episode yaba iya 23, wenda wasanga uzajya gusoma iyi nkuru byararenze, tuzakora uko dushoboye tujye tuya updatinga

Muri iyi nkuru iza kuba ndende (niba urambirwa vuba) ndagenda mvuga make kuri buri episode (uko twabyise) guhera kuya mbere icyo izo documents zabaga zirimo bitandukanye kugeza ku iheruka gusohoka yasohotse uyu munsi,  kuko aya ni amabanga y’uburyo urwego rw’ubutasi rwa leta zunze ubumwe z’amerika rukora ashyirwa hanze ku karubanda akabonwa nubishaka wese

Icyitonderwa:  ibyo mvuga mo ahangaha ni kubwo kumenya (education purpose), hapana kwiga kwangiza no kwinjirira uburenganzira bw’abandi,

Ikindi: ntago muri iyi nkuru ndakoresha imvugo ziri techniques cyane, kuko ni byiza ko umuntu wese ari buyisangemo. niba usanzwe umenyereye ibintu bya cyber security no gu hackinga ntago uri busangemo mvuga uko wakoresha izi tools wikileaks ishyira hanze,

Nanone: kenshi biragora kubona amagambo amwe n’amwe inyito yayo y’ikinyarwanda, ni biba ngombwa kenshi uzajya ubona nshizemo amagambo amwe y’icyongereza , ni ukubyihanganira

Ku bantu bashishikajwe cyane kandi bashaka details nyinshi zirenzeho bajya k’urubuga rwa wikileaks bakanze aha


Dutangiye rero, kubera ko NSA na CIA rimwe na rimwe zikoresha abo bita aba contractors, ni abantu baba batari abakozi bahoraho kuko baza bagakora akazi kabo karangira bakagenda, ibi bigo bikunda gukoresha aba hackers bakora batyo, bityo nibwo hatangiye kuzajya habaho ko NSA cg CIA kenshi bimwe mubyo bakoresha baneka isi yose cyane cyane bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga (amaprogramu bagira yihariye abibafashamo akora mu gu hackinga ariyo ndi kwita tools) nibindi byinshi  rimwe abo ba contractors bahitamo kubishyira hanze mu buryo bw’ibanga ku buryo batamenyekana,  akenshi iyo babishyira hanze babinyuza mu itangazamakuru kuko niho abantu hafi ya bose bamenyera amakuru, akenshi ugasanga bahitamo wikileaks kuko ariyo yamenyekanye cyane  mu gushyira hanze amabanga nkayo ngayo y’ibihugu,  ni muri ubwo buryo ibintu nkibi bigera hanze

Tuje rero uko izi tools naya ma documents yandi byagiye bigera hanze, byatangiye kuri tariki 7 werurwe ubwo wikileaks yatangazaga ko itangije serie nshya ya documents na tools za NSA igiye gushyira hanze iyo serie ikazaba yitwa ”Vault 7” igakomeza ivuga ko  igice kinini kandi cya mbere cy’iyi serie kizitwa ”Year Zero” kikaba kigizwe na documents zose hamwe uziteranyije 8.761


Dark Matter

Kuri tariki 24 Werurwe yasohoye icyo nakwita episode ya mbere yitwa Vault 7  ”Dark Matter ”, aho muri izo documents hari hakubiyemo uburyo CIA ikoresha yanduza (infect) imashini za Apple, na smartphone za iPhone k’uburyo telephone  cyangwa imashini icyo wayikora cyose  niyo wayi resettinga ntacyo byakumarira bahora bafite access ku mashini yawe, niyo wakora password on boot bimwe abantu bafata imashini zabo waba ukiyatsa ako kanya igahita igusaba password kugira ngo yake, nabyo bakaba babasha kubi bypassinga bagakomeza, imashini bakayikoramo ibyo bayifuza aho waba uherereye hose kwisi wowe utabizi,

Muri izi documents zasohotse muri dark Matter harimo tools zigufasha gukora ibyo bintu  navuga nkizitwa (Sonic ScrewDriver, DarkSeaSkies, DerStarke, nizindi ...)


Marble Framework

Tariki 31 Werurwe wikileaks yashyize hanze marble framework yari igizwe na files zigera muri 676, aho iyi framework yo yari igizwe na tools zikoreshwa cyane mu kugenza icyaha ukaba wamenya uwaba yakoze igikorwa runaka yifashishije ikoranabuhanga (Digital forensics) cyane cyane nk’abantu bakora ama Virus, ukaba wamenya uwakoze virus runaka, uko iyo virus ikora, icyo uwayikoze yari agamije nuko wayirinda (niba ushishikazwa nuko virus zikora, byagusaba kubanza kwiga
programming (kwiga kwandika codes) na Networking, niba bigushishikaza ushobora kubyiga mu kinyarwanda online bitakugoye ukanze aha[programming],  naha[Networking])

Source code (ni ukuvuga codes zikoze marble Framewok uzishatse cyangwa nawe ukaba ushaka kuyikoresha wazikura aha)


GrassHopper

Tariki 7 Mata  wikileaks yashize hanze iyo bita Grasshopper ikaba yari igizwe na documents 27 z’uburyo CIA noneho ikoresha yinjira mu mashi za Windows noneho, nkeka abenshi arizo dukoresha , aho iyo grassHopper yo ireba niba mu mashini ishaka kwinjiramo haba harimo byibuze antivirus ikamenya yo uko iri buze kwifata nigera mu mashini bitandukanye nuko yari gukora iyo itaza kuyisangamo nibindi byinshi bijyanye nuko izi windows zacu (windows xp, windows7, windows 8, windows 10) zikora


HIVE

Tariki 14 Mata wikileaks yashyize hanze HIVE igizwe na documents 6  aho hari harimo uburyo CIA itwara amakuru n’ibindi byose bashaka muri telephone cg mudasobwa bamaze kwigarurira, nk’urgero mu gihe imashini yawe yawe yamaze kwattakwa na Grasshoper, Hive yo ibafasha gu controlla iyo mashini yawe bakayibwira yo ibyo ibohereza kandi bikagenda mu buryo bwibanga kandi birinzwe  


Weeping Angel

Tariki 21 Mata wikileaks yashyize hanze weeping Angel, tool bakoreshaga ifasha kuba SmartTV yawe cyane cyane  Samsung  smartTV zakoreshwa mu kuba zaneka nyirayo harimo nko kuba ya recordinga amajwi y’abantu bari kuganirira hafi aho iri (abenshi tuzitereka muri salon) maze ikabibika ikaba izabyohereza igihe babikeneye, niba  ari smartTV ifite na video camera , iyo video camera ishobora gukoreshwa nayo ifata amashusho y’amwe mubayireba

Ho bivugwa ko iyi weeping angel yakoze n’ikigo cya abongereza cy’ubutasi cyitwa MI5 nyuma ikaza no guhabwa CIA


Scribbles

Tariki 28 Mata iyi ikaba ari tools CIA yakoze mu buryo bwo gufata abantu bayo bagerageza gushyira hanze ibyo ikora nibyo ikoresha, ba bacontractors natangiye mvuga bitwa aba whistleblowers, bityo uwashyize hanze tool runaka cg indi documents yakagombye kuba ibanga akaba yafatwa akamenyekana witewe nibyo bita “web beacons tags” baba barashyize muri izo documents zabo z’amabanga (classified documents)’

Archimedes

Tariki 5 Gicurasi, Archimedes yo icyo yafashaga  NSA na CIA ni kuba bayikoresha babasha kwigarurira abantu bari gukoresha internet baherereye ahantu hamwe, nk’urugero nko muri cyber café, lab za internet z’amashuri, network zo mu ma bureau n’ahandi baba bari kuri network imwe  aribyo bita (LAN network) ku buryo bashobora kuba controlla icyarimwe.

Ushaka gukoresha iyi tool ya archimede wakanda aha ukiga uburyo bayikoresha

Niba ukeneye kumenya byinshi birenzeho kanda hano usome igice cya kabiri cy'iyi nkuru 

by BahatiPhill in Tech News

Wikileaks Ntiyigeze Ijya Hasi

Mu minsi ishize twabagejejeho uburyo Group y’abahackers yitwa Our Mine yinjiriye Twitter y’ikipe ya FC Barcelona maze igatangaza ko baguze umukinnyi mushya Di Maria wo muri Paris Saint Germain (ushaka gusoma inkuru irambuye wa kanda aha). 

Umwanya ushize inkuru yari yabaye kimomo ko Our Mine yabashije kwinjiririra Wikileaks aho n’ibitangazamakuru byinshi bitandukanye byandika kuri internet ibintu bijyanye n’ikoranabuhanga byari byatangiye kuvuga ko Wikileaks yashizwe hasi nk'aho ikinyamakuru the Verge kibitangaje mu kanya  aho cyerekanye ifoto OurMine ivuga amagambo menshi avuga ati “Don’t worry we are just testing your…. Blablablah, this is not a security test! Remember when you challenged us to hack you!”


OurMine yahise itangiza hashtag yitwa #WikileaksHack kuri twitter kugira ngo abe ariyo abantu bakoresha babivugaho, abantu bari batangiye kuvugavuga ku mbuga nkoranyambaga ko wikileaks nayo yeretswe ko idakomeye.

Gusa mu kanya nibwo bimenyekanye ko OurMine itigeze I hackinga Wikileaks kuko siko abantu bose basuraga Wikileaks basangaga urubuga hariho buriya butumwa, ahubwo byaje kumenyekana ko OurMine yagiye ikora ibyo bita DNS Hack, DNS hack mu magambo make ni uburyo uyobya abantu bari gukoresha internet bo mu gace kamwe, bajya bajya gusura urubuga runaka aho kujya ku rubuga rwa nyarwo ukabayobya ukabajyana kurutari rwo, rw’uruhimbano wakoze, kuburyo bo batabimenya, bahagera bagakomeza kwizera ibyo bari kuhabona bazi ko bari ku rubuga rwa nyarwo,

Nk'urugero ushobora kuba uzi gukora ibi bya DNS Hack ukaba wagenda abantu bari gukoresha facebook muri Kigali wenda bakoresheje umuyoboro wa Tigo, cyangwa MTN cyangwa Airtel ukabayobya ukabajyana kurundi rubuga rutari facebook wenda rusa nayo kuburyo batari bubimenye maze ukabiba ibyo ushaka byose, haba ibyo bakoresha binjira muri facebook, password zabo n’ibindi byinshi , biterwa n'icyo ugamije, gusa ntibivuze ko facebook bari bayi hackinze, ni nkibi rero byabaye ku bantu bamwe bakoresha Wikileaks.

  


ku basanzwe batazi Wikileaks ni urubuga rumenyerewe mu gushyira hanze amabanga y’ibihugu bikomeye kwisi cyane cyane leta ya Amerika n'urwego rwayo rw’ubutasi CIA n’ibindi bihugu bikomeye ku isi rwashinzwe n’uwitwa Julian Assange.

Byamaze Kwemezwa Ko iPhone8 Igiye Gusohoka Izajya Yicharginga Kuri Wireless

Nkuko twegereje ukwezi kwa 9, kuri tariki 12 nibwo  hazaba igikorwa(Event) aho uruganda Apple rwerekana ibintu bishya rwaba rugiye gushyira kw'isoko bikaba binazwi ko aribwo iPhone8 izashyirwa ku mugaragaro, hagiye haba ibihuha byinshi byuko izaba iteye, udushya izaba izazana n'ibindi byinshi bitandukanye.

gusa ubu amakuru dukesha ikinyamakuru cyandika kuri technology TNW kivuga ko cyizeye neza ko iPhone8 izasohoka ifite ubushobozi bwo kwi charginga mu gihe iri kuri wireless, ni ukuvuga ngo mu gihe ufite iPhone8 uri gukoresha internet ukuye kuri wireless ntibizajya bikugora ngo telephone iraza gushiramo umuriro ngo ujye gucomeka, ahubwo igihe cyose ukiri kuri wireless telephone izajya iba iri kujyamo umuriro. 

ibi bihuha byatangiye kuvugwa mu kwezi kwa 2, gusa bikabura gihamya, byaje kongera kubura igihe byatangazwaga ko iPhone8 izaza yo noneho umubiri wayo w'inyuma udakoze mu cyuma, kandi bikaba bisanzwe bizwi ko iyi technology nshya yo gucharginga telephone ziri kuri wireless igora gukora mu gihe telephone ibaye yambaye umubiri ukozwe mu cyuma, nubwo mu mezi ashize company ikora ama processors ya phones yitwa Qualcom yatangaje ko nabyo byashoka

ibindi bikiri ibihuha wenda tutarangiza tutavuze ni uko harimo kuba izaba ariyo telephone ihenze kuko bivugwa ko izatangira igurishwa ku madollars $999 (bihwanye na mafranga 843.000 by'amafranga y'Urwanda nkurikije uko ifranga ry'urwanda rya vunjaga uyu munsi nandika iyi nkuru), ikindi nuko izaza iri mu bwoko butatu hakurikijwe memory izaba ifite kuko hazaza izifite 64GB, 256GB bikaba binavugwa ko hari nizaba ifite 512GB ( benshi dutunze imashini zitagejeje kuri iyi memory :) )

Konti ya Twitter Y'ikipe ya FC Barcelona Yinjiriwe

kuri uyu wa gatatu nibwo byamenyekanye ko Konti y'ikipe ya FC Barcelona yanjiriwe naba hackers, ibi byamenyekanye igihe abo ba hackers bakimara kuyigarurira bahise bahise ba tweetinga bakoresheje iyo konti ya barca ko basinyishije umukinnyi wo muri Paris Saint Germain witwa Angel Di Maria, abafana ba barca bakoresha Twitter batangira kwishima bazi ko babonye undi mukinnyi mushya.



batangira no gushishikariza abantu bakoresha twitter gukoresha Hashtag yitwa #FCBHack (FC Barca Hack) mugihe bashaka kuvuga kuri icyo kintu cyabaye, aho abantu batangiye gukoresha iyo hashtag, benshi batera urwenya ko barca yinjiriwe.


ibi bikaba byabaye nyuma yamasaha 24 barca itangarije ko igiye kurega umukinnyi Neymar Jr umaze iminsi ayivuyemo akajya muri Paris Saint Germain imushinjja kutubahiriza bimwe mumasezerano bari bagiranye isaba ko yahabwa amafranga agera muri miliyoni 10 z'amadollars.

gusa ubwo twandikaga iyi nkuru amasaha abiri ashize ikipe ya Barca ikaba yari yabashije gusubirana Konti yabo banatangaza ko bari binjiriwe



aba hackers bakoze ibi bintu bakaba banabyivugira ni group yaba hackers bo muri Saudi Arabia yitwa OurMine, isanzwe imenyerewe mu gukora ibi bintu byo gu hackinga social media z'ibigo bizwi n'abantu bazwi, kuko mu bihe bishize bigeze kwigarurira nanone Konti za Twitter nkiya Marvel (ikigo gikomeye gikora amafilms azwi cyane nkaza Spider-Man, Iron Man, Thor, X-Men , Hulk nizindi nyinshi kubakunda amafilms izi baba bazizi), konti ya Netflix, tutibagiwe niyahoze ari konti ya twitter y'umuyobozi wa Facebook ariwe Mark Zuckerberg. si na Twitter gusa ,kuko mu mezi ashize nabwo binjiriye konti ya Facebook y'ikigo gikomeye cy'abanyamerika mu mwuga w'itangazamakuru CNN.

Koherezanya amaFiles byihuse kuri internet ukoresheje Mozilla FireFox

"Mozilla iri kugerageza uburyo bushyashya ku buryo abayikoresha bashobora kuzajya boherezanya ibintu mu buryo bwi banga kandi vuba byihuse, muri ibyo bintu harimo ama files aremereye (manini), akenshi ku bantu bakunda koherezanya ibintu kuri internet"

ujya rimwe na rimwe ukenera kohereza umuntu wawe akantu koroheje kuri internet maze kenshi ukabona bisa nk'ibikugora cyane cyane ko abenshi iyo dutekereje kohereza umuntu file iyariyo yose kuri internet dutekereza gukoresha whatsapp cg emails cyane nkiyo ikintu tugiye kohereza iyo ari ifoto cg ikaba ari indirimbo cg amashusho, n'utundi tu documents duto duto nkutwo.

gusa nabyo nubwo tubikoresha bisa nkibifite aho bigarukira(limits). nk'urugero nka email abenshi dukoresha ya Google ariyo Gmail ntiyemera ko wohereza file (attachment file) irengeje 25MB, whatsapp nayo hari ubwoko bwinshi bw' amafile (format extension) itemera kohereza ubwo tuvugira ubungu (wasanga mu minsi iri imbere bazagenda bemerera andi moko yandi y'amafile).

Mozilla nkuko ibitangaza kuri blog yabo (https://testpilot.firefox.com/experiments/send), nuko file ushaka kohereza uzajya uya uploadinga kuri server za mozilla, maze bakaguha link ushobora guha umuntu washakaga kohereza icyo kintu, Mozilla ikaba yaratanze ubushobozi bwo kuba wakohereza ikintu kitarengeje 1GB, kandi kikaba kimara amasaha 24, ni ukuvuga ngo kuva umaze kwa uploadinga iyo file ushaka kohereza maze ugafata iyo link baguhaye ukayohereza uwo muntu wawe izajya imara amasaha 24 iyo link ikiri valid, nyuma yaho icyo kintu washakaga kumwohereza kizajya gihita cyisiba automatically nyuma y'amasaha 24.

ukongeraho ko n'igihe uwo muntu wawe yamaze ku kidownloadinga inshuro imwe gusa, nabwo kizajya gihita cyisiba ni mu rwego rw'umutekano w'ibintu byawe wohereje kuko banateganya ko abantu bazajya bahahanahana ibintu byabo bya mabanga(confidentials)

Uko bikorwa 


uko bikorwa ntakundi ni ukujya kuri https://send.firefox.com/ 



ukihagera uhita uhaboha aho ushobora ku droping file ushaka kohereza




umaze kugera kuri uru rubuga, ufata file yawe ushaka kohereza ukayi droppinga hariya hari akamenyetso k'ubururu cg washaka ugakanda hariya handitse ngo "Select a file on your computer" maze ugahitamo file ushaka kohereza. (urabona ko njye ngiye kohereza file yitwa "db.sqlite3", akaba ari agafile ka database kabitsemo amakuru menshi atandukanye ya database yanjye ngiye kohereza umuntu)





kwa uploadinga, iyo uri kwa uplloadinga utuntu duto ntago bigutwara umwanya cyane, (gusa bivuze ko nuzaba uri kuhohereza umuntu Film cg Game, kuko ai ama files manini nabyo bizafata umwanya, bitewe n'umuvuduko wa internet uri gukoresha)


iyo Upload irangiye, bahita baguha Link utwara maze ukayiha wa muntu wawe(ushobora kuyimwohereza muri message cg whatsapp cg ahandi hose mwandikirana ubutumwa), ushaka ko aza ku downloadinga icyo kintu cyawe, banakubwira ko link iraza guta agaciro nyuma y'amasaha 24 cg nyuma yuko arangije ku downloadinga icyo kintu, bivuze ko iyo link iba itacyongeye gukoreshwa ukundi.



aha niho nagerageje gufata iriya link nyifungurira ahandi kugira ngo ubone uko ifunguka ufite n'ubushobozi bwo ku downloadinga ya file nari nohereje ya "db.sqlite3"

hari ubuyo bwinshi wakoresha mugihe ushaka gu shareringa file cg ibindi bintu kuri internet n'abantu bawe aho twavuga nko gukoresha izindi mbuga za internet nazo zitanga services nkizongizo nkaza Zippyshare, 4Chan, Mediafire, Dropbox na google Drive n'izindi nyinshi, gusa inyinshi zikenera ko ubanza ku registeringa kuri izo mbuga akenshi, kandi hari igihe uba wihuta, utanafite telephone yawe mu ntoki wenda ngo ube wakoresha whatsapp, ibyihuse kandi byiza ni ugukoresha ubu buryo bwa mozilla butagira ikindi bugusaba, usibye file ushaka kohereza

Bahati Philbert

@BahatiPhill
...

About me

Very interested in Cyber Security, Python is my favorite language, Net Neutrality is all we have to stand for!

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