Nigute wamenya abinjiye n’abagerageje kwinjira muri mudasobwa yawe!?

... by alainmat in Linux How To 354

Kuba ukoresha mudasobwa bigushyira mu mubare mugari w’abasangira amakuru ku isi yose biciye kuri internet, ibyo kandi bigatuma mudasobwa yawe ihora yitegeye rubanda nyamwinshi rudashobora kuburamo abashaka kuyinjiramo; rimwe na rimwe bigakunda ubundi bikanga. Niba mudasobwa yawe ikoresha Linux Operating System, ushobora kumenya abinjiye ndetse n’abagerageje kuyinjiramo ukoresheje command ya last tugiye kurebera hamwe uko ikora maze ikakwereka ibyo wifuza kubona.

Command ya last yerekana urutonde rwose rw’abagerageje kwinjira muri mudasobwa yawe n’igihe babikoreye ndetse yerekana n’igihe system yawe iheruka kongera gutangira bundi bushya (reboot). Iyi command ikorana na wtmp ndetse na utmp (files zibika amakuru ajyanye n’abinjira muri mudasobwa muri Linux) maze ikabasaha kwerekana abagize aho bahurira na mudasobwa yawe. Ifoto ikurikira yerekana urutonde last izana iyo ntacyo wacaguyemo cyihariye ushaka kureba.


Nk’uko bigaragara ku ifoto, urutonde ruba ari rurerure kandi wenda siko ushaka kureba byose, aha rero ushobora kuyobora iyi command aho ikwereka. Mu buryo ushobora guhitamo ko iyi command ikoresha harimo ubu bukurikira:

YYYYMMDDhhmmss (UmwakaUkweziUmunsiIsahaUmunotaIsegonda)
YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss (Umwaka-Ukwezi-Umunsi Isaha:Umunota:Isegonda)
YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm (Umwaka-Ukwezi-Umunsi Isaha:Umunota)
YYYY-MM-DD (Umwaka-Ukwezi-Umunsi)
hh:mm:ss (Isaha:Umunota:Isegonda)
Hh:mm (Isaha:Umunota)
Yesterday (Ejo hashize)
Now (Aka kanya)
Today (Uyu munsi)
Tomorrow (Ejo hazaza)
+Xmin (X aba ari umubare w’iminota guhera kuri 0 kuzamura)
-Xdays (X aba ari umubare w’iminsi guhera kuri 0 kuzamura)
-p – yerekana abantu bari bari gukoresha system mu gihe runaka
-s – yerekana imiterere y’uko system yinjiwemo mu gihe runaka

Dukoresheje bumwe mu buryo tumaze kuvuga haruguru reka turebe uko last ikora

last -p 2017-08-10

Aha iyi command igomba kutwereka niba hari abigeze binjiramuri system kuwa 10 Kanama 2017 nk’uko bigaragara ku ifoto ikurikira


Ushobora kandi kureba uko byari byifashe mu gihe runaka ukoresheje uburyo bwa -s na -t twabonye haruguru. Wabikora gutya:

last -s -20days -t -10days

Aha yakwereka abagerageje ndetse n’abinjiye muri system mu minsi myakumyabiri yashize kugarukira ku munsi wa cumi w’ahashize. Ni ukuvuga ngo niba turi kuwa 31 Kanama 2017, iriya command yakwereka ibyabaye kuva kuwa 11 Kanama kugeza kuwa 21 Kanama 2017.


Reka noneho turebe command wakoresha wenda ushaka kureba ibyabaye kuva ejo hashize kugeza ku isaha yashize. Ni ukwandika:

last -s yesterday -t -60min

Uko niko command ya last ikora ikakwereka abagiye bagerageza kwinjira ndetse n’abinjiye muri mudasobwa yawe.



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Mateso alain

@alainmat
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