Linux for hackers: Igice cyambere

... by crook in Hacking 1838

Aba hackers benshi ntabwo bazi cyangwa bamenyereye gukoresha linux ahubwo bakaba bafite ubumenyi bujyanye na Windows operating system na Mac. Rimwe na rimwe ukaba usanga iyi iba imwe mu mbogamizi abantu benshi bashaka kuba aba White Hat Hacker bagenda bahura nayo. Ku mpamvu nyinshi nziza rero Linux akaba ariyo Operating System wakwifashisha mu gihe ushaka kuba umu White Hat Hacker, Grey Hat Hacker cyangwa Black Hat Hacker !! Ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese White Hat Hacker ,Grey Hat Hacker na Black Hat Hacker bishatse kuvuga iki?? Uyu mwanya ntabwo aribyo tuvugaho ariko tukazabikugezaho ubutaha reka dukomeze n'aka gace kambere kavuga kuri Linux.

Bavuga ko kugira ngo ube umu hacker ugomba kuba uzi byibuze ibyibanze kuri Linux Operating System. Akaba ariyo mpamvu nafashe akanya kugira ngo njye mbagezaho ibyibanze wagakwiye kumenya kuri Linux utu akaba ari uduce tuzajya tugenda dukurikirana tukubwira kubyerekeye Linux Operating System kuva kuri zero kugeza haricyo umenye (professional),White Hacker.

Nzageragerageza kureba uburyo wakongera ubumenyi mu gukoresha Linux Operating System buhoro buhoro uko uzagenda usoma kugeza uburyo uzaba ushobora gukora Hacking.

Muri uru ruhererekane tuzakoresha Linux Operating System Yitwa Kali Linux n'ingero zose uzabona hano inyinshi zijyanye na Hacking Tuzazibereka dukoresheje kali Linux. Ushaka kuyimanura wajya kuri iyi link https://www.kali.org/downloads/

Mbere y'uko ntangira ndizera ko buri wese azi uburyo ushobora gushyira Operating System muri mudasobwa ye cyangwa ukaba uzi uko wakoresha Hypervisor (vmware,cyangwa virtualbox) hari utazi uko yabigenza yatwandikira kuri facebook page yacu tukazamukorera video yerekana uburyo ushobora gukoresha Hypervisor.


1. Fungura Terminal


Mugihe uri gukoresha Linux ikintu cyambere ugomba gukora ni ugufungura terminal. Muri kali linux hari aka Icon kayigaragaza kari kuruhande rw'ibumoso kandaho incuro imwe ebyiri hazahita hafunguka window isa n'iri ku foto ikurikira.

Iyo window ifungura icyitwa shell. ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese shel niki ??shell ni Command Line Interface ituma ukora ama commande amwe n'amwe cyangwa ukaba wayifashisha wandika scripts. Hari ubwoko bwinshi bwa shell ariko ubuzwi cyane akaba ari Bash Shell(Bourne Again Shell). Iyi ikaba ariyo iza muri Kali Linux ndetse n'andi ma Linux Distribution.


2. Ugomba kumenya ibijyanye na File System

Bidahuye no muri Windows Operating System, Linux Operating system yo ntabwo yerekana ama Hard Drives gusa .Linux Operating System yo uko ama File yayo ameze mbere na mbere haza icyo twita root hamwe uzasanga igaragazwa nakamenyetso kameze gutya /.
Ikaba ariyo iza hejuru y'andi ma Logical File Structure.

Urebye neza kuri iyi foto iri hejuru ya Linux File System ahabanza hariho root cyangwa /. Ariko ntuzitiranye “root” user na root(/) ya File System ibi ni ibintu bibiri bitandukanye. Hano root ni nk'ibanze ry’uko File system yubatse.

Reka turebere hamwe amwe muma sub-directories ya root icyo agenda akora  .

1./root:iyi yerekana home directory kuri buri mu super user ni ukuvuga root user:

2./etc iyi folder cyangwa directory yo ibika ama configuration yose ajyanye na linux Operating System.

3./home iyi ikaba ari home directory y’umu user runaka.

4./mnt aha niho andi ma file systems aba abitse

5./bin niho ama binaries cyangwa executables muri Windows  aba abitse.

6./lbb aha niho ama libraries files aba ari.

Reka tube turekeye aha tuzagenda tubona icyo amwe n’amwe agenda akora mu tundi duce cyangwa izindi nkuru zizagenda zigera kuri uru rubuga.

3. PWD

Rimwe na rimwe iyo ukoresha Linux harigihe wumva ushaka kumenya aho urimo gukorera ni ukuvuga kumenya directory urimo, Uyimenya wifashishije Command ya  PWD(Present Working Directory ) iyi yerekana aho urimo gukorera .ibi biba byiza iyo ushaka kuva muri directory imwe ujya muyindi bigufasha kumenya aho uva.

Fungura terminal yawe nk'uko twabibonye mbere andikamo  “pwd” command ukuyeho “” uhite ukanda Enter uzahita ubona aho uri gukorera.

Uko ubibona Linux ihise ituzanira /root itubwira ko turi muri directory ya root user .iyo tuba turi muyindi directory yari guhita izana izina ry'aho turi .

4. whoami

Linux burigihe ntabwo isaba ko ukora login uri Root user burigihe ushobora no gukora Login uri umu user usanzwe .ugereranije na window iyo tuvuze root user muri linux aba ari nka Administrator muri windows Operating System .Bikaba Atari byiza kandi ko burigihe ukora login uri root kuko ushobora kuba waba hacked n'umuntu runaka akaba yakwangiza ibyawe byose bikaba ari byiza ko ugomba gukora login nk’umuser usanzwe .
Rimwe na rimwe rero ushobora kwibagirwa uko wakoze login niba walogginze nka root cyangwa nk’umuser usanzwe rero kugira ngo umenye uko waloginze hifashishwa “whoami” command.

Iyo nza kuba na logginze nka user usanzwe ,system yari guhita izana izina ry’uwo mu user.

5. cd 

cd command icyo ifasha ituma ubasha kuva muri directory ujya muyindi ukoresheje terminal akaba ari bumwe mu bumenyi bw'ibanze ugomba kuba ufite mu gihe ukoresha Linux Operating System.
Bijya gusa neza nko muri windows command Line, naho dukoresha cd (change directory)command dushaka guhindura directory ,Uko cd command ikoreshwa fungura terminal>andika cd usige akanya ukurikizeho izina rya Directory ushaka kujyamo.

Urabona ko twahise tujya muri /etc directory nk'uko ubibona ushobora kureba ko aribyo wandika command twabonye haruguru “pwd”.

ushobora gukoresha cd ugasiga umwanya ugakurikizaho / (cd /) ushaka kujya kuri root level.
cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri directory ibanziriza iyo urimo ushobora gukoresha kali>cd .. wabikora wandika cd ugakurikizaho utudomo tubiri.
cyangwa ukaba ushaka kujya kuri level ebyiri zabanjye nukuvuga inyuma ho kabiri bitewe n'aho uri
koresha kali>cd .. .. cyangwa cd ../..

6. ls command

Ushobora kuba uri muri directory runaka ukaba ushaka kureba ibintu byose biyirimo ushobora gukoresha “ls” command ukuyeho “” ukareba ibitu byose biri muri iyo directory.
Kali>ls

Uko ubibona kuri iyi photo iri haruguru ama files na directory byose byagaragaye ukoresheje ls command.
Ariko ushobora kuba ushaka amakuru ahagije ajyanye nabyo nko kumenya igihe byahinduriwe ,uko bingana, permissions, na owner. Ushobora kongeraho -l switch nyuma ya ls kugira ubone ibyo tumaze kuvuga.
Uko bikorwa fungura terminal andika ls usige akanya wandike –l (ls –l)

7. help

Ubundi urebye buri command muri linux igira ubufasha(help) ni ukuvuga ko ushobora kubona uburyo ikoreshwa urebye muri file yayo yerekana uburyo ikora ndetse n'uko ikoreshwa. Help command ikwereka uburyo ushobora gukoresha no gusobanukirwa uburyo command ushaka gukoresha ikora n'uko wayikoresha .
Urugero nshobora kuba nshaka uburyo nakoresha wireless cracking tool nshobora kwiyandikira iyo command runaka ngakurikizaho –help ikanyereka uko ikoreshwa.

Kali >aircrack-ng –help

Ubundi buryo ushobora kwifashisha ushaka kubona uko commande runaka ikoreshwa ushobora kwifashisha -h cyangwa ? kugira ngo ubone ubufasha bujyanye na command iyo ariyo yose . Nshobora kuba nshaka kumenya uko nakoresha wordpress vulnerabilitie scanning tool (wpscan)
Nahita nandika wpscan -h muri terminal ako kanya mpita mbona uko wpscan ikora n'uko nayikoresha

Hano ho urabonako nakoresheje minus sign( - ) cyangwa dash imwe 

8. man

Icyiyongera kuri help switch ku ma commands menshi n'ama applications ushobora kubona information zerekeye application runaka cyangwa command runaka ugiye kuri manual page yayo. Urebye buri Linux igira manual page ya buri application na command .
Ushobora kubona manual wanditse muri terminal man commands imbere ya command ushaka kureba manual page yayo cyangwa application :
Urugero: Fungura Terminal wandike man ukurikizeho commande ushaka (man aircrack-ng)

Iyi izahita ifungura manual page ikatwereka information zose kurusha izo twabona dukoresheje -help.

Aka kakaba ari agace kambere twareberaga hamwe. Ndakeka buri kimwe cyagaragaye neza hagize icyo ushaka kudukosoraho cyangwa kutwunganira watwandikira kuri facebook page yacu. 
Ushobora kuba wakunze ibyo twanditse kora share usangize n’abandi.



Comments

... by lookback

nice work

... by Lucky

Mukomerezaho.

... by stand

Nagize flash bootable nyishyiraho files ya kali Linux byose neza Na za power ISO byose ndabikoresha iba bootable fresh maze nyicomeka kuri windows PC 8 maze nda booting ya kali Linux birakunda biranakora neza tuu gusa nzakubura shutdown option birumvikana nakoze shutdown by force nshomoraho flash yanjye ndayi restartinga PC ark yaka ari windows OS nanone kdi uziko narii n' install kali Linux OS Ndanongera ndatangira byose ark nazimya nkatsa bikaba gutyo sizi icyo wamfasha kbs

... by eric s

guys kali Linux wayikurahe ngo nange nzagerageze

... by Crook

@Eric ushaka gutunga Kali Linux wakurikira iyi link https://www.kali.org/downloads/

... by Abraham

Man this is great gufasha abanyarwanda kubyumva neza, wenda wasanga haribamwe icyongereza kigora, so keep it up guys! Best wishes from USA

... by Ally

keep working guys, we share for others

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Ndabaga Micheal

@crook
...

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