Itandukaniro riri hagati ya Virus, Worms, Ransomwares, Trojans, Bots, Malware, Spyware n’izindi

... by crook in Tech News 287

Nimba usanzwe ukoresha mudasobwa cyane cyangwa uyikoresha gake , Ushobora kuba warumvise namagambo nka Viruses ,Trojan, Worms, Ransomware,Space n'ayandi .Ariko bamwe muritwe tukaba tuyita virus,tutitaye kwitandukaniro ryayo .Ushobora kuba warashatse kumenya aho ayo magambo ugend uhura nayo atandukaniye nubwo yose ashobora kwangiza mudasobwa ,telephone yawe n’ibindi bikoresho bigera kuri murandasi nahandi.Ese waba waribajije aho byaba bitandukaniye ??

Turebye Virus, Trojan zose zirimubwoko bwa porogaramu(software) zangiza mudasobwa muri make (Malware) 

Aha ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese ubundi aya magambo yavuyehe??

Murimake aya magambo cyangwa ubu bwoko bwamaporogaramu(software) ntabwo yaturutse mw’ijuru cyangwa ngo abe yarazanywe n’ibivejuru kandi ntanubwo yakozwe hagambiriwe kwangiza mudasobwa cyangwa ibindi bikoresho.

Ubundi amateka y’ibitero bya (Malware) yabayeho muwi 1949 igihe umugabo witwa Von Neuman, Yasobanuraga uburyo hakorwa porogaramu ishobora kwikoramo uduce twinshi ubwayo ariko ntabwo cyaricyo gihe yayishyize mubikorwa .Ahubwo ijambo “Computer Virus” ryakoreshejwe bwamber na Professor Leonard M.Addleman muwi 1981 igihe yaganiraga na mugenzi we with Fred Cohen.

Virus yambere yabayeho yitwaga “Brian” yakozwe nabavandimwe babiri aribo Basit Farooq Alvi and Amjad Farooq Alvi bakomokaga Lahore muri Pakistan . Briam yariyarakozwe ifite intego yakwangiza Storage device zifite file system ya MS-DOS FAT ushobora kwibaza kuri file system iri nijambo tuzarebera hamwe ubutaha reka dukomeze  .Brian ikaba yari yarakozwe naba bavandimwe bagambiriya kwangiza mudasobwa za IBM .

Aba bavandimwe muri interview akoze bavuze ko bayikoze bashaka gucungira umutekano amabanga yabo.

Reka tuve mumateka twerekeze kuri Malwares akaba ari porogaramu za mudasobwa zakozwe kugira zangize mudasobwa yaba iri kuri murandasi cyangwa itariho,Ubundi hano icyo ugomba kumenya ama Malware akora aruko na mudasobwa yawe ibigizemo uruhare.

     WORMS

Worms :Izi ni porogaramu za mudasobwa (Computer Virus) zifite ubushobozi bwokwigira nyinshi ubwazo .

Intego yazo yambere niyo gukwirakwira kuri mudasobwa zose ziri kuri Murandasi binyuze mubikoresho bibikwaho ama document (Flash ,External Hard Disk,Memory Card ……) ariko ibyo byose bikorwa muburyo bwibanga kuburyo umuntu urigukoresha mudasobwa atabimenya .

Worms ntacyo zangiza kuri mudasobwa yawe ahubwo icyo zikora zigira nyinshi ubwazo zikuzuza umwanya ubikaho ibintu nkenerwa kuri mudasobwa ibi bikakaba bituma mudasobwa yawe igenda gahoro cyane .

Worms zamenyekanye cyane harimo:

SQL Blast:iyi ikaba yarashyize hasi murandasi mugihe gito.

Code Root:ikaba yarashyize hasi ama website 359,000.

                 ADWARE

Adware zo zamamariza muma porogaramu umuntu aba yashyize muri mudasobwa .Izi zoz ziza zirikumwe na porogaramu runaka zimwe dukoresha kubuntu ntanyishyu dusabwe ariko sukuvugako porogaramu zose dukoresha ntanyishyu ziba ziriho Adware .


Ariko ntabwo wahita wita Adware Malware kuberako Adware zo ntabwo zangiza mudasobwa ahubwo zo icyo zikora nukwamamariza nyirikuyikora ibyo yamamaza bikagaragara kuri muridasobwa yawe .

            SPYWARE

Spyware izi porogaramu za mudasobwa icyo zikora zicunga uburyo ukoresha murandasi yawe (Browsing way) nibindi bintu byose byibanga ufite muri mudasobwa yawe zikabasha kubyoherereza nyirikuyikra cyangwa uwayikoherereje .ibi byose zikaba zibikora muburyobwibanga .


Spyware zo akaba ariho zitandukaniye na Adware.

SPAMS

Ushobora kuba warakiriya ubutumwa kuri email utazi ubworoheje ibi nibyo bita Spams cyangwa Junk mail .Naho uburyo bwogukwirakwiza ubutumwa bumwe kuri murandasi nibyo bita “Spamming” bikaba bikorwa muburyo bwokwamamaza Junk mails ziba ziherekejwe cyangwa zifite Virus na Trojans zijya muri System ya mudasobwa yawe igihe ufunguye izo emails .



BOTS

BOTS cyangwa ROBOTS: ububwoko bwo bukora ntabufasha bwikiremwamuntu kibigizemo uruhare.

Zishobora gukoreshwa muburyo bwiza cyangwa bubi.Harabantu baba bafite imyumvire mibi bashobora gukora Bots kugira bazikoreshe muburyo bubi bangiza mudasobwa zabandi .


Bots iyo zimaze kwkwirakwiza ubwazo Bots zikora nkikiraro kizihuza nanyirazo (Servers) icunga
mudasobwa zose zatatswe na Bots akaba arizo bita Botnets:

Botnet(Robot Network) ni uruhurirane rwa mudasobwa zirimo porogaramu runaka icungwa cyangwa ikoreshwa nanyiri gukora iyo porogaramu.

Ibi nibimwe Bots zishobora gukora mugihe zakwatatse :

1.Zishobora gutwara Password ukoresha nibindi.

2.Analyzing Network Traffic

3.Open Backdoor kuri mudasobwa zatatswe.

Kugira ngo zibashe gukoreshwa haba harabayeho ubwitange numuhati w’abanyiri kuzikora .

Bots zose ntabwo ariko zangiza cyangwa ziba zifite intego yokwigarurira mudasobwa ziri kuri murandasi ahubwo hari n’ubundi bwoko bwa Bots bushaka amakuru kuma websites nko kuri Google nahandi .

    RANSOMWARES

Ransomware zo ziri mubwoko bwa Malware izi zo icyo zikora nuguhindura imikorere ya mudasibwa yawe,Zikaba zanakubuza gukora ibikorwa bimwe na bimwe kuri mudasobwa yawe.


Ikizakubwirako ari RANSOMWARE yakwatatse uzabona ubutumwa buza kuri mudasobwa yawe bugusaba kwishyura kugira ngo mudasobwa yawe yongere ikore neza.

     SCAREWARE

Nimwe mubwoko bwa MALWARE buzana ubutumwa budashira(Pop-Up) bukubwira buti There are problems found in your PC,registry error found, Computer at serious risk ,virus found.

Ubu butumwa buza bugaragara nkaho buvuye kwanyiri gukora Operating System urimo gukoresha ariko akenshi usanga atariho buba buvuye ahubwo aba aria ma web pages arimo kubwohereza.


Scareware ikintu
cyambere ikora nugushuka abantu bakoresha mudasobwa mukumanura ama Anti Virus
atujuje ubuziranenge nandi ma porogaramu menshi….

Uburyo wakoresha wirinda
SCRAWARE nukudafungura ubutumwa bupfuye kuza utazi aho buvuye neza igihe urimo
gukoresha murandasi.

                                                              

ROOTKIT

Kugira ibashe gukora ibanza yakuramo Antivirus muri mudasobwa yawe nibindi byose bicunga umutekano wayo.


Ubundi RootKit uburyo ikoramo itandukanye nuko izindi twabonye haruguru zikora yo itangira gukora burigihe ucanye imashini nukuvugako Antivirus itabasha kuyibona.

Rootkit iyo igeze muri mudasobwa yawe ituma habaho kwishyirami(install)  kwandi ma porogaramu nabandi ba user bashobora gukoresha mudasobwa yawe ntaburenganzira bahawe.

Ishobora gukuramo ama porogaramu washyize muri mudasobwa yawe harimo antivirus kugirango itabasha kuyibona.

                                                       

VIRUSES

Virus nazo zifite ubushobozi bwokwigira nyinshi ubwazo,zikangiza ama document nibindi waba ubitse muri mudasobwa yawe.

Ariko aho integer nke za Virus ziri nuko zidashobora kugira icyo zikora zitifashishije andi ma porogaramu naho ubundi wazifata nkingabo zatsinzwe igihe zitabonye andi ma porogaramu azifasha kugira zibashe gukora.

Ahantu ama Virus akunze kwifashisha kugira abashe kwangiza :

Zijya ku ndirimbo,Amafoto,amashusho nandi ma porogaramu washyira muri mudasobwa yawe.



Umaze kurangiza gusoma ibi ushobora kwibaza uti ese ni iyihe mpamvu abantu bakoze Malware.

Hano hani impamvu sizose ahubwo reka turebe nke murizo:

     1.Bamwe bazikora bagamije kugirango babashe kwigarurira mudasobwa zabandi bantu.

     2.Kugira zibashe gutwara amabanga waba ubitse muri mudasobwa yawe .

     3.Kugira babashe kubona amafaranga

     4.Kugira babashe kwigarurira mudasobwa z’abandi.

Uko wakwirinda Viruses,Worms,Rootkit,Ransomware ….

     1.Gerageza gukoresha ama porogaramu yizewe.

     2.Koresha Antivirus kandi ujye uhora uyikorera Update.

     4.Ntugapfe gushyira porogaramu ivuye ahantu hatizewe muri mudasobwa yawe.

     5.Ntukigere ufungura Link iyo ariyo yose utizeye.




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Ndabaga Micheal

@crook
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I am a software engineer with extensive experience and author and works for a ktimez.com

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