Dore ibintu 5 by'ingezi wakora ukarinda amavirusi (virus) kugera mudasobwa yawe irimo Window Operating System (OS)

... by origene in Windows How To 517

Ni kenshi twinubira imikorere idahwitse ya za mudasobwa zacu ikunze guterwa n'amavirusi yibasira za mudasobwa akenshi aturuka kuri murandasi cyangwa agahererekanywa binyuze mubikoresho twifashisha tubikaho ibintu runaka nka Flash Disk, CD, Memory Card (SD Card) n'ibindi. Hano rero ktimez yagukusanyirije ibintu 5 wakora kubwirinze kuri virus. Si itegeko ko ubikora ukurikije uko bitondetse kuko mu kubitondeka ntakintu twagendeyeho na kimwe, wowe wabanza icyo ushaka kuko byose kimwe gikora ukwacyo ku giti cyacyo.
1. Koresha Microsoft Security Essentials (antivirus)
Nubwo abenshi usanga birukira gushaka ama antivirus bibwira ko ngo akaze nkaza Kaspersky, Avasta, Avira na za Smadav n'izindi, ugasanga batera umugongo Antivirus yikorewe na Microsoft ubwayo ikayikorera OS (Ahandi turi bukoreshe ijambo "OS" umenye ko tuvuze Operating System) yayo ubwayo nyamara ntibamenye ko arirwo rukingo rwizewe rwo guhashya virus muri mudasobwa yawe. Iyi antivirus ihangana nama software adakenewe ikayavana muri mudasobwa, igashakisha ikitwa virus cyose mu mashini ibinyujije muri scan ikorera Window OS yose, iyi antivirus kandi imanura (download) updates zo kwifashisha mu mutekano ziba zigezwe buri gihe uko ubishatse. Inama naguha rero ni ukumanura iyi antivirus ukajya uyikoresha dore ko ari ubuntu kuri Microsoft website.
2. Hoza Window yawe ku gihe (Update)
Uko abagizi ba nabi bo kuri murandasi (Hackers) bagenda bagerageza uburyo bwo kwinjirira Window umunsi ku munsi ni nako Microsoft nayo igenda ikaza umutekano umunsi ku munsi kugirango abkiriya bayo badahemukirwa cyangwa bakangirizwa.
Guhoza Window OS ku gihe (Update) bivuze iki?
Ibi bivuze ko wowe niba ufite Window OS wenda waguze cyangwa wamanuye umwaka ushize nuramuka utayishyize ku gihe, hari byinshi uzaba udafite muri OS kandi uwayiguze nyuma yawe abifitemo kabone niyo mwaba mukoresha version ya Windows imwe mwese, kuko Microsoft igenda yongera byinshi muri OS yamaze gusohora ikabishyira ku hanze kugirango uwamaze kugura ya OS akore Update byiyongeremo atagombye kugura inshya, ibi byongerwamo nyuma akenshi nuko baba barabashije kubivumbura nyuma cyangwa se bigaturuka ku kuba wenda barabonye ko hari babashije kubinjirira bakareba aho banyuze (vulnerabilities) bakahakomeza, wowe rero nudashyira OS yawe ku gihe bivuze ko cya cyuho cyari kirimo uyigura cyangwa uyimanura kikirimo biakaba bwaba inzira abagizi banabi banyuzamo virus yo kukwangiriza. Bivuze ko nukora update byabyuho byose bizasibangana kuko uzaba umanuye bimwe byaburagamo ngo OS yawe ibe intarumikwa. Urumva ko rero gushyira Window OS kugihe ari ingenzi cyane. MU gihe waba utazi inzira binyuramo ngo ukore update ya Window OS yawe biroroshye ni ugukanda: Start>Control Panel>System and Security>Windows Update.
3. Banza usuzumire application yose nshyashya muri virtual machine mbere yo kuyishyira muri mudasobwa nyirizina.
Virtual Machine ni iki?
Virtual Machine ni mudasobwa itagaragara ushobora kwiremera wowe ubwawe muri mudasobwa yawe ikamera nkaho ari mudasobwa iri muyindi, ni Operationg System ugenda ugashyira muri mudasobwa yawe utiriwe ukuramo iyambere ahubwo iyo ushyizemo igasa nkaho ibitse imbere mu yari isanzwe, si ngombwa ko kandi Virtual OS igomba kuba ari imwe na OS usanganywe muri mudasobwa kuko ushobora kuba usanzwe ukoresha Windows bisanzwe wajya gushyira OS muri virtual machine ugashyiramo Linux kand zose zigakora.
Kubera iki ngomba gusuzumira muri Virtual Machine?
Ni ukuvuga ngo niba wenda wamanuye application ishobora kukwangiriza mudasobwa (urugero yazabye nama virus cyangwa igatuma mudasobwa idakora neza), igihe uhise uyikubita muri mudasobwa yawe bivuze ko izahita yangiza ako kanya, ariko nubanza kuyishyira muri virtual machine uzabanza kareba imikorere yayo nubona yizewe uyishyire muri mudasobwa bisanzwe, nusanga ntabuzirange uyihorere ariko mugihe izaba ari ya yindi yangiza bivuze ko izangiza virtual machine ariko ntigire icyo itwara mudasobwa cyangwa Window OS yawe isanzwe. Ikigereranyo nabaha kugirango dufatanye kubumva neza ni nk'uko waba ugiye gusuzuma niba itara runaka ryaka(rishobora kwaka neza cyangwa rigatwika, itara riragereranywa na ya application nshyashya ugiye kugerageza), ukaba ufite inzu yawe ushaka gukoreshamo iryo tara ariko ukagira impungenge zuko ryagutwikira inzu kuko utaryizeye (inzu hano iragereranywa na mudasobwa yawe isanzwemo OS ya window), aha rero tuzakenera icyo twagereranya n'akazu gato uzasuzumiramo rya tara ariko kakaba imbere muri yanzu (ako kazu karagereranywa na virtual machine), nufata rya tara ukarisuzumira muri ka kazu wenda wabumbye mu byondo rikaka neza uzamenya ko ryatara ryawe ryujuje ubuziranenge, urishyire munzu yawe, ariko niriba ritwaka rizatwika ka zazu gato uhite ubibona ko ritezewe urijugunye mugihe ryari kuba ryagutwikiye inzu nini iyo utaza kuba waryigiye umutwe. Ngako akamaro ka virtual machine.
4. Browser
Browser twese tuzi ko ari aya ma application twifashisha tujya kuri murandasi arimo za Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari n'izindi. Nk'uko tubizi akenshi virus zitera za mudasobwa hafi ya zose ziva kuri murandasi bityo rero browser iba ibifitemo uruhare runini kuko ariyo kiraro kikwambutsa kikujyana mw'isi ya murandasi, igihe browser itari kugihe ko ibashe guhanga nibintu bose biba bishaka kuva kuri murandasi biza kwibika muri mudasobwa yawe byiganjemo amavirusi uba ufite ikibazo gikomeye cyo guhura n'akaga. Aha rero bigusaba guhoza browser yawe ku gihe (update), ndetse ukanahindura byinshi muri settings kugirango ukaze umutekano wawe, nk'aho browser uyisaba ko yajya ikuburira igihe ufunguye imbuga cyangwa ugiye kumanura ibintu bitizewe. Browser nakugira inama yo gukoresha cyane ni Chrome kuko uri muzifite umutekano wihagazeho.
5. Ntugafungure ibintu ubonye byose
Akenshi abagizi ba nabi bo kuri murandasi bifashisha ama links ameze nkayamamaza ariko agendeye kubinyoma byo kugusha umuntu mu mutego, akenshi bazana amalink agendanye nibyo bazi bikurura imbaga nyamwinshi mw'iyi minsi harimo nkamashusho y'urukozasoni cyangwa bakubwira ko nuhafungura uri butsindire amafaranga y'umurengera. Amalink nkayo ntukayafungure yakwangiriza.
Hari n'ibindi byinshi kandi twababwira wakwitaho tutavuze muri uru rutonde birimo nko gukoresha browser zizewe, gukoresha Firewall, gushyira antivirus ku gihe (update), gushakisha malware ukoresheje guscana (scan), ibi byose bigaherekezwa no gukora Backup kuko ntawizera umutekano ijana ku rindi, kuburyo igihe cyose wahura n'ikibazo cyo kwangirizwa na virus waba ufite ubwiteganyirize.
Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".



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Dusabe Origène

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I earned an advance A1 Diploma in Information Communication Technology from IPRC-KIGALI (KICUKIRO CAMPUS), I am mostly interested in technology and wise knowledge with both my heart and my soul.

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