Uko wagarura file zasibwe muri telephone yawe cyangwa kuri memory card

Ese waba wirigeze usiba amafoto, indirimbo cyangwa n’ibindi runaka utabishaka? Ukaba nta bundi buryo ufite bwo kubigarura kandi byari ingenzi, mu bihe byashize iyo wasibaga ibintu kubw'impanuka ntayandi mahitamo wagiraga uretse kwakira igihombo, tukaba dushimira iterambere mu ikoranabuhanga ryaje kuko ubu wagarura ibyasibwe byose muri telephone yawe mu buryo bworoshye kandi buri wese akaba yabyikorera. Kurikira amabwiriza ku murongo.


1.    Icyo usabwa ni ukumanura software yitwa FORecovery Android Data Recovery ukayishyira muri mudasobwa yawe (install). Nyuma yo kuyishira muri mudasobwa yawe, yifungure hanyuma ucomeke telephone yawe kuri mudasobwa ukoresheje umugozi wa USB. Hanyuma uhitemo uburyo bwa Data Recovery, mu gihe ubonye mudasobwa itayibonye, reba niba telephone yawe idafunze cyangwa wemeze USB debugging.

2.    Hitamo ubwoko bwa file ushaka kugarura kuko ibi bazagufasha kugarura file wifuza gusa kuko software ifite ubushobozi bwo kugarura n'ibyo utifuzaga. Mu rwego rwo kwirinda ibyo udakeneye, uhitamo ubwoko bwa file ushaka kugarura hanyuma ukande kuri button ya Next.

3.    Hitamo niba ukoresha Advanced cyangwa Standard scan: ushobora guhita wibaza aho ubu buryo bwombi butandukanira. Standard scanning izihutisha igikorwa vuba ariko rimwe na rimwe siko izagarura ibintu byose wifuzaga, mu gihe advanced izatwara umwanya munini ariko ukaba ufite amahirwe menshi ya kugarura ibintu byose. Nurangiza guhitamo uburyo bumwe muri ubu tubonye ukoresha kugira ngo ukomeze kanda start.

4.    Gushakisha ibyari byarabuze nibirangira, uzabona ibyabashije kuboneka mubyo wari warabuze, kugira ngo ubashe kubigarura muri mudasobwa yawe kanda “recover” hanyuma utegereze byibike muri mudasobwa yawe aho ushobora kubifata ukabishyira kuri telephone yawe cyangwa ahandi hose waba wifuza.

Uko wagarura ibyasibwe kuri memory card


Amabwiriza akurikira yerekana inzira wanyuramo kugira ngo ubashe kugarura ama file yaba yarasibwe kuri memory card yawe. Kurikira amabwiriza ku murongo.


1.    Nk'uko twabibonye mu mabwiriza yabanje hejuru, ugomba kuba ufite FORecovery Android Data Recovery iri muri mudasobwa yawe kandi ikora neza, hanyuma uhitemo sd card recovery ahagana hasi kuri program.

2.    Shyira memory card yawe muri mudasobwa ukoresheje card reader cangwa uyishyire muri telephone yawe hanyuma ucomeke ukoresheje umugozi wa usb

3.    Hitamo akamenyetso (icon) kerekana memory card kagaragara muri program hanyuma ukande kuri continue mu gihe memory card yaba igaragara ko yabonetse kuri mudasobwa

4.    Hanyuma uhitemo uburyo bwo gushakisha ibyasibwe ukoresha hagati ya standard na advanced nk'uko twabonye itandukaniro riri hagati y'ubu buryo bwombi. Hanyuma ukande Next.

5.    Gushakisha ibyari byarabuze birangiye, ukabona ibyo washakaga kugarura wabibonye kanda kuri recover kugira ngo ubashe kubigarura kuri memory card yawe.

Turabibutsa ko iyi software ikora muri mudasobwa zirimo operating system ya windows ndetse na telephone zirimo operating system ya Android. 

Niba hari icyifuzo, inyunganizi cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "Ktimez.com".

Amakomande y’ ingenzi ugomba kumenya niba ukoresha operating system za windows

Hari inzira nyinshi za bugufi wakoresha kugira ngo ugere kuma files, folders ndetse n'ama program ari muri mudasobwa yawe. Aho ushobora kurema inzira za bugufi zigufasha kuba wagera kuri izo program cyangwa n’ibindi ushaka mu buryo bworoshye. Aho ushobora kuba washyira izo program kuri taskbar (ni ku murungo ugana hasi kuri mudasobwa yawe gusa si ihame ko uhora hasi kuko wanawuhindura ukawushyira ku mpande cyangwa hejuru gusa ubusanzwe uba hasi) ariko ibi ntitwabikora kuri program zose dutunze, windows Run Command box nayo igufasha kuba wagera kuma files, folders, system n’ibindi mu buryo bworoshye.

Tukaba tugiye kurebera hamwe ama komande 15 ugomba kumenya kugira ngo bikorohereye kuba wa genzura muri bimwe ukora muri mudasobwa yawe muburyo bworoshye. Gufungura akadirisha ka windows Run Command kanda ku kamenyetse ka windows kari kuri keyboard yawe hamwe n’ inyuguti ya R icyarimwe (hold windows button then press R).

Amakomande y’ ingenzi ugomba kumenya niba ukoresha operating system ya windows

1.    %temp%
Ubu ni uburyo bwihuse buzagufasha gusiba ibintu byinshi utagikoresha muri mudasobwa yawe. Bikaba bizagufasha kongera ububiko bwa mudasobwa yawe ndetse n’ imikorere (performance) ya mudasobwa yawe.

2.    Cmd
Iyi komande igufasha gufungura akadirishya kahariwe gukoreshwamo ama komande gusa muri operating system za windows kazwi nka DOS (Disk Operating System). Muri iki gihe abantu benshi bakoresha mudasobwa usanga aka gace kahariwe ama komande batagakoresha gusa ni ingenzi kuko hari ibintu byinshi runaka ushobora kujya gukora bikagusaba ko ubikorera muri DOS.

3.    MSConfig
Iyi komande igufasha gufungura windows system configuration aho ushobora guhindura ibintu byinshi bitandukanye, urugero nk’uburyo mudasobwa yawe yaka, amaporogaramu (programs) yifungura mudasobwa yawe ikimara kwaka (Start-up) ndetse n’ ibindi bitandukanye.

4.    Perfmon.msc
Iyi komande ishobora gukoreshwa mu kugenzura imikorere ya mudasobwa yawe. Izagufasha kubona uburyo bwiza kandi bworoshye bwo kugenzura imikorere ya system yawe

5.    Sysdm.cpl
Iyi komande ifungura akadirishya kerekana ibigize (properties) system yawe, aho ushobora guhindura ibirinze mudasobwa yawe ndatse ukaba wahindura n'ibindi bijyanye n’imikorere ya mudasobwa yawe.

6.    Taskmgr
Iyi komande ifungura task manager aho ushobora kugenzura ibiri gukorerwa muri mudasobwa yawe ndetse n'ama program yose afunguye ukaba wareba ibiri gutwara umwanya munini muri mudasobwa yawe, task manager yitabazwa cyane nk'igihe ufunze program runaka ku buryo busanzwe bwo gukanda ku gasaraba gatukura ikanga gufungika, icyo gihe iyo ugiye muri task manager urayifunga byoroshye cyane.

7.    Regedit
Regedit komande ikoreshwa gufungura windows registry. Windows registry ni izingiro ry’ububiko bw’amabwiriza runaka (configuration) ya windows operating system, kimwe n'ama software yose ari muri mudasobwa yawe.

8.    \ (akarongo kaberamye)
Aka karongo nukandika muri Run command (twabonye ko run command ifungurwa ukanze kuka menyetso ka windows kari kuri keyboard ndetse no ku nyuguti ya R icyarimwe) kazafungura Local Disk C, iyi ikaba arinzira yihuse yo kugera kuri Local Disk C

9.    . (akadomo)
Iyo wanditse akadomo muri run command yawe hafunguka umu user uri gukoreramo ahabitse ama folders atandukanye nka Downloads, Documents, Desktop, Pictures ndetse n'izindi zitandukanye.

10.    .. (utudomo tubiri)
Iyo wanditse utudomo tubiri muri run command hafunguka folder ibitsemo umubare w’aba user bari muri mudasobwa yawe iyo folder ikaba iherereye muri Local Disk C

11.    Control
Iyi komande ifungura control panel, control panel ikoreshwa mu kugenzura (managing) ibigize system yose ndetse n’ama program yose ari muri mudasobwa

12.    Hdwwiz.cpl
Iyi komande ikoreshwa mu gufungura device manager, aha ushobora kugenzura ibikoresho (device) byose bicometse kuri mudasobwa ndetse n’ibyazanye na mudasobwa.

13.    Osk
Iyi komande ifungura On-screen Keyboard kuri screen ya mudasobwa, aho ushobora kuba wigize ikibazo cya keyboard isanzwe wenda nka buto (button) imwe yagize ikibazo, aha wafashisha komande "Osk" ikagufungurira On-screen keyboard ubundi ukabasha kwandika ukoresheje mouse.

Niba hari icyifuzo, inyunganizi cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "Ktimez.com".

by charles in Windows

Imbuga nziza (best websites) za murandasi wakwigiraho programming

Ushobora kuba uri umwe mu bakunzi ba programming cyangwa uri umunyeshuri wiga programming, hari imbuga nyinshi za murandasi zagufasha kwiga programming. Ushobora kuba wacangwa n'izi mbuga kuko ari nyinshi kandi zose siko zakwigisha muburyo bwiza cyangwa muburyo bwagufasha kumenya programming, tukaba twagushakiye imbuga 5 nziza zagufasha kwiyungura ubumenyi muri programming mu buryo bwiza kandi busobanutse

Imbuga 5 nziza zagufasha kumenya programming

1 – The New Boston

·  Video Tutorials: inyigisho z’ amashusho zigufasha kumenya programming

·  C, C++, HTML, Javascript: izi nizimwe mu ndimi (language) uru rubuga rwibandaho mu kwigisha ariko ntibivuze ko n'izindi ndimi utabonaho inyigisho zazo.

The New Boston ni urubuga rufite umwihariko wo kwigisha, mu gihe waba ukunda cyangwa ushaka kumenya programming nka C, C++ ndetse n'izindi technologies zijyanye no gukora imbuga nka HTML na Javascript, uru rubuga rukaba ruzagufasha kumenya izo ndimi. Ndetse ukaba wahasanga amashusho yigisha (video tutorials) ku bindi bintu wakenera kumenya nka Python, Photoshop, imikino yo muri mudasobwa (computer game) n'ibindi byinshi bitandukanye. Uru rubuga rufite kuva kuri 50 kugeza 1000 by’ amashusho kuri buri somo ushaka kwiga kandi zigusobanurira mu buryo bwumvikana. 

Wasura uru rubuga wanditse utya muri browser yawe: https://www.thenewboston.com

2 – Codecademy

·  HTML, Javascript, CSS, Python, Ruby, PHP: izi ni zimwe mu ndimi (language) uru rubuga rwibandaho mu kwigisha ariko ntibivuze ko n'izindi ndimi utabonaho inyigisho zazo.

Niba uri umutangizi ukaba ushaka gutangirira ku masomo y’ibanze ya programming, Codecademy ni urubuga rwiza kuri wowe. Codecademy izaguha uburyo bworoshye bwo kumva amashusho nyigisho (Tutorials) kandi uhitamo icyiciro ugezeho kuri programming kugira ngo uhabwe amasomo ahwanye n’urwego uriho. Amasomo aciyemo mu bice byinshi kuburyo iyo urangije igice kimwe utangira ikindi cyisumbuyeho kubyo wigaga. Kandi iyo uri kwandika program ugenda ubona aho uri gushyira amakosa kuburyo wakwikosora ako kanya.

Wasura uru rubuga wanditse utya muri browser yawehttps://www.codecademy.com

3 – Learn Code the Hard Way

· Ebooks: ibi ni ibitabo usomera kuri murandasi bijyanye na programming byaba na ngombwa ukaba wabimanura.

·  C, Python, Ruby, Regex na SQL: izi ni zimwe mu ndimi (language) uru rubuga rwibandaho mu kwigisha ariko ntibivuze ko n'izindi ndimi utabonaho inyigisho zazo.

Ntucike intege kubera izina ry'uru rubuga. Learn Code The Hard Way itanga uburyo bwihariye bwo kwigisha indimi za programming zitandukanye nka Python, Ruby, C, Regex na SQL. Inyigisho ziri mu bwoko bw’ibitabo kandi zigendeye ku bumenyingiro (Practice) kugira ngo ubashe gusobanukirwa neza amasomo. Ibi bitabo bigizwe n’inyigisho zitandukanye bitewe n’urwego uriho muri programming, kandi ibi batabo bikaba byizewe kuko urugero ibitabo byigisha kuri Python byamanuwe inshuro zirenga 500,000 bivuze ko birimo inyigisho nziza zagufasha.

Wasura uru rubuga wanditse utya muri browser yawehttps://learncodethehardway.org/

4 – Wibit.net

· Ebooks: ibi ni ibitabo usomera kuri murandasi bijyanye na programming byaba na ngombwa ukaba wabimanura.

· C, C++, C#, Java: izi ni zimwe mu ndimi (language) uru rubuga rwibandaho mu kwigisha ariko ntibivuze ko n'izindi ndimi utabonaho inyigisho zazo.

Wibit.net ni rumwe mu rubuga ruzafasha umutangizi muri programming kwiga neza aho itangira ku kwigisha ihereye mu mizi aho ihera ku mvo n'imvano y'ibyo ugiye kwiga, ndetse n'andi masomo yaba agize aho ahuriye nibyo ugiye kwiga ibi bikaba bizagufasha kugira ubumenyi bukomeye kuri programming. Ikindi cyiza ku bantu bakoresha telephone zirimo android ndetse na iOS uru rubuga rubafitiye ibitabo wasanga muri Play Store na App Store bitewe na telephone uri gukoresha gusa ibi bitabo bikaba bigurishwa, nubwo bitari ku giciro cyo hejuru.

Wasura uru rubuga wanditse utya muri browser yawe: https://www.wibit.net

5 – W3Schools

·  Html, JavaScript, PHP, ASP.net: izi ni zimwe mu ndimi (language) uru rubuga rwibandaho mu kwigisha ariko ntibivuze ko n'izindi ndimi utabonaho inyigisho zazo.

N'iyo waba utari umukunzi wa programming cyangwa nta bumenyi na buke ufite kuri programming uru rubuga ruzagufasha kuba wagira ibyo umenya kuri programming kuko rutanga ubumenyingiro bushobora gutuma ukunda programming kandi mu buryo bworoshye. Rutanga amasomo kuri HTML, JavaScript, PHP, ASP.net ndetse n’ibindi byinshi bitandukanye. Kandi ikindi cyiza kuri uru rubuga ni uko utagira ikibazo cy'aho wandikira ama code yawe, kuko kuri uru rubuga ushobora kwandika ama code yawe ukaba wanabona umusaruro (output) w'ibyo wari urimo ukora. Ikindi cyiza ubona amahirwe yo kwimenyereza ibyo wigaga binyuze mu ma project atangwa n'uru rubuga.

Wasura uru rubuga wanditse utya muri browser yawe: https://www.w3schools.com


Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho, wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

Softwares 10 wakwifashisha mu gufata ibyo uri gukora cyangwa kureba muri mudasobwa

Uyu munsi ktimez.com twabazaniye software icumi (10) nziza wakwifashisha mu gufata amashusho y’ibyo uri gukora kuri mudasobwa yawe ku bantu bakoresha Operating System za Windows. Umunsi ku munsi niko umubare w'ibyo dukora bikenerwa gufata amshusho muri mudasobwa zacu byiyongera bityo hakaba hari software nyinshi zabigufashamo ariko twaguhitiyemo icumi nziza wakwifashisha kuko buri yose ifite umwihariko wayo

Urutonde rwa software nziza 10 wakwifashisha mu gufata amashusho y'ibyo uri gukora kuri mudasobwa yawe:

1.) CamStudio: iyi ni imwe muri software wakwifashisha kuko izagufasha kugenzura ibiri gukorerwa muri mudasobwa mu gihe waba udahari. CamStudio ishobora gufata amashusho ndetse n’amajwi icyarimwe biri gukorerwa muri mudasobwa yawe. CamStudio kandi ifite ubushobozi bwo gufata ishusho rifite ishusho nziza (High quality), ushobora no gufata amashusho nawe ukaba wakwishyiramo ukoresheje webcam, webcam (ni camera iba kuri mudasobwa zimwe na zimwe hejuru ya screen ku buryo ushobora kwifata amashusho akenshi ikoreshwa mu gihe umuntu uri kuganira n’undi akoresheje amashusho” video calling”), ikindi nuko igufasha gufata amashusho adafite size nini bitewe n’uburyo iyi software ikozemo.

2.) Icecream Screen Recorder: Icecream Screen Recorder nayo ni imwe muri software nziza wakwifashisha mu gufata amsahusho y’ibyo uri gukora muri mudasobwa, aho ifite version 2, harimo igurishwa n'iy’ubuntu. Version y’ubuntu igufasha gufata amashusho atarengereje iminota icumi, mu gihe iyishyurwa ariyo nziza ku isoko kuko ifite ikoranabuhanga izindi software zidafite aho ushobora guhitamo igice ushaka gufatira amashusho kuri mudasobwa yawe kandi yo ushobora no gufata amashusho arengeje iminota icumi. Ushobora gufata amashusho y’imikino (games) uri gukinira muri mudasobwa yawe, ushobora gushushanya cyangwa kwandika mubyo uri gufatira amashusho, ikindi iyo ukoresha Icecream Screen Recorder ushobora guhitamo quality ishusho yawe iza ifite.

3.) EZVID: Iyi ni software y’ubuntu igufasha gufata amashusho y’ibyo uri gukora muri mudasobwa aho amashsusho yawe aza agaragara neza (best quality) mu buryo bworoshye. Inagufasha gufata amajwi, wakoresha webcam, ushobora gushushanya mubyo uri gufata

  • Irihuta kandi iroroshye gukoresha
  • Ifite uburyo ushobora guhindura ibyo wafashe (Video Editor)
  • Ikaba ari nziza ku bantu bakunda gufata amashusho y’imikino (games) bakinira muri mudasobwa
  • 4.) Webinaria: iyi ni imwe muri software wakwifashisha mu gufata amashusho y’ibyo uri gukora mu buryo bworoshye, aho igufasha gukora ibi bikurikira:

  • Ushobora gufata amashusho afite format ya AVI cangwa FLV
  • Ushobora gufata amajwi y’ibiri kuvugira muri mudasobwa yawe
  • Ushobora kubika amashusho hanyuma ukaza kongeramo amajwi nyuma cyangwa inyandiko
  • 5.) TinyTake: TinyTake ni software y’ubuntu igufasha gufata screenshot no gufata amashusho ku bakoresha operating system za windows cyangwa iza iOS na Mac, ukoresheje TinyTake ushobora gufata amafoto n’amashusho y’ibiri kubera muri mudasobwa yawe ndetse ukaba washyiraho igitekerezo cyawe (Comment) ku byo umaze gufata kandi ukaba wabisangiza abandi mu buryo bwihuse. Ushobora gufata amashusho kugeza ku minota ijana na makumyabiri (120 min).

    6.) Active Presenter: ActivePresenter ni imwe muri software zifite ingufu mu gufata amashusho y’ibyo uri gukora kuri mudasobwa, aho uba ufite ubushobozi bwo guhindura (Edit) amashusho/ amajwi wafashe mu buryo wifuza, kandi uba ufite ubushobozi bwo guhindura ibyo wafashe muri format runaka ushaka.

    7.) Bandicam: Bandicam ni imwe muri software zitaremerewe zifashishwa mu gufata ibyo uri gukorera muri mudasobwa ku bantu bakoresha operating system za windows, ikaba ifite ubushobozi bwo gufata buri kimwe cyose uri gukora mu ishusho igaragara neza (high quality) kandi iguha ubushobozi bwo gufata igice runaka kuri screen yawe. Ushobora kwifashisha Bandicam ugafata umikino (games) uri gukinira muri mudasobwa yawe, kandi ushobora gufata amashusho afite format ya AVI/MP4

    8.) FreeScreen Video Recorder: iyi ni imwe muri software wakwifashisha mu gufata amashusho y’ibyo uri gukora mu buryo bworoshye, aho igufasha gukora ibi bikurikira:

    ·  Ushobora gufata amashusho y'ibyo uri gukora harimo n'amajwi ari guturuka mu ndangururamajwi (microphone)

    ·  Ushobora gufata amashsusho yibyo uri gukora menshi icyarimwe

    ·   Ushobora guha ingano (resize) ibyo wafashe

    ·   kandi ushobora gufata amashusho afite format ya AVI/MP4

    9.) Snagit: Snagit Software iguha uburyo bwose bwo gufata ibyo uri gukora muri mudasobwa yawe yaba ari muri mudasobwa ya windows n'iya Mac, ikaba yoroshye kuyikoresha ndetse iranihuta ikindi ni uko iyo umaze gufata amashusho cyangwa amafoto (screenshots) uba ufite uburyo bwinshi wayahindura mu buryo wifuza. Ushobora gufata amashusho y’inama iri kuba online.

    10.) GoPlay Editor: Niba warigeze gutekereza gufata ibyo uri gukora cyangwa uri kureba muri mudasobwa (record sreen), gufata imikino cyangwa webcam iyi ni imwe muri application izagufasha kubikora mu buryo bworoshye, kandi ikaba yakira ikoranabuhanga rya 3D ndetse n’imikino ikinirwa kuri telephone, amashusho cyangwa amafato wafashe aza afite ishusho igaragara neza.

    by charles in Windows Mac OS

    Sobanukirwa Picture in Picture (PiP) nicyo ikora

    Picture in Picture (PiP) ni uburyo bushya buri gucuruzwa mu bikoresho by'ikoranabuhanga bishya biri gusohoka muri iki gihe, ubu buryo bukaba bwaratangiye mubikoresho bya kompanyi ya apple bivuze ko bwabaga mubikoresho birimo operating system ya iOS, kugeza ubu PiP ikaba yageze no muri Android na Windows Operating system. ushobora kwibaza icyo PiP aricyo? icyo izamarira abayikoresha? ndetse n' ama application azakorana nayo?

    Nyuma y'uko kompanyi ya google ishyize hanze version ya Android ya O izwi ku izina rya Android Oreo ikazana niri koranabuhanga rya PiP kompanyi nyinshi zikora ama operating system zahise zikunda iri koranabuhanga, zikaba zaratangiye gushyira iri koranabuha muma version yazo mashya.

    Ese Picture in Picture (PiP) n' iki?

    Twakomeje kuvuga PiP hejuru ariko se mubyukuri PiP ni iki? PiP ni uburyo bukwemerera gukina amashusho kandi ugakomeza gukoresha n'izindi application icyarimwe, aho amashusho azakinirwa mu gakiramende gato (small rectangular) kuri screen yawe, hanyuma ukaba wakomeza gukora ibindi ya mashusho ari kwikina kandi ntibibangamire izindi application waba uri gukoresha, bityo bikaba byatuma telephone yawe cyangwa mudasobwa yakora ibintu byinshi icyarimwe.

    Ni gute wakoresha iri koranabuhanga mu gikoresho (device) cyawe?

    Nta kindi kintu bigusaba gukorera igikoresho cyawe kugira ngo PiP itangire gukora, icyo usabwa gusa mu gihe ufunguye amashusho ushaka kureba, uzarebe hasi hazaba hari agashushanyo (icon) k'urukiramende kari mu kandi gashushanyo k'urukiramende. Icyo uzakora ni ugukanda kuri ako ka icon k'urukiramende hanyuma amashusho yawe azahita afunguka mugakiramende gato kuburyo wakomeza gukora ibindi uri no kureba ayo mashusho.

    Ese iri koranabuhanga ni iki ryagufasha wowe uzarikoresha?

    Iri koranabuhanga hari byinshi rizagufasha wowe uzarikoresha muri ubu buryo bukurikira:

    1. Bizagufasha kuba wakora ibintu byinshi mu gihe kimwe (Multitask), kuko wabasha kureba amashusho y'ibintu runaka uri no gukoresha izindi application

    2. Ikindi ushobora kuba uri gukoresha ikoranabuhanga ryo kuganira kumashusho (video chatting) ukaba wanakomeza gukoresha izindi application utiriwe uhagarika ibiganiro n'uwo mwavuganaga.

    Ese niyihe operating system yakira PiP?

    Muri 2015, iOS 9 (operating system ikoreshwa n'ibikoresho bikorwa na kompanyi ya apple version yayo ya 9) niyo yatangiranye niri koranabuhanga rya PiP muri iPad, indi ni Android Oroe (android 8, ni operating system ikorwa na kompanyi ya Google ikoreshwa muma telephone menshi) nayo yasohotse ifite ubushubozi bwo gukoresha PiP, nyuma y'uko kompanyi nyinshi zikunze PiP, Microsoft isanzwe ikora operating system za windows yatangaje ko igihe gushyira PiP muri version zikurikira za Windows 10 zizasohoka muminsi mike iri imbere.

    Ese nizihe application zikoresha PiP (which apps use the PiP)?

    Nk'uko tumaze kubibona hejuru ko atari buri operating system yakira ubu buryo bwa PiP, bivuze ko atiri buri application yose wakoreshamo PiP, tukaba tugiye kureba application zakira PiP Mu minsi iri imbere WhatsApp nayo izaba ifite ubushobozi bwo gukoresha PiP. aho uzajya ukoresha WhatsApp video calling uri no gukora ibindi kuri telephone yawe cangwa ukaba wareba amashusho kuri youtube uri no kuganira na bagenzi bawe kuri WhatsApp mu gihe kimwe.

    Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com"

    Dore ibintu 5 by'ingezi wakora ukarinda amavirusi (virus) kugera mudasobwa yawe irimo Window Operating System (OS)

    Ni kenshi twinubira imikorere idahwitse ya za mudasobwa zacu ikunze guterwa n'amavirusi yibasira za mudasobwa akenshi aturuka kuri murandasi cyangwa agahererekanywa binyuze mubikoresho twifashisha tubikaho ibintu runaka nka Flash Disk, CD, Memory Card (SD Card) n'ibindi. Hano rero ktimez yagukusanyirije ibintu 5 wakora kubwirinze kuri virus. Si itegeko ko ubikora ukurikije uko bitondetse kuko mu kubitondeka ntakintu twagendeyeho na kimwe, wowe wabanza icyo ushaka kuko byose kimwe gikora ukwacyo ku giti cyacyo.
    1. Koresha Microsoft Security Essentials (antivirus)
    Nubwo abenshi usanga birukira gushaka ama antivirus bibwira ko ngo akaze nkaza Kaspersky, Avasta, Avira na za Smadav n'izindi, ugasanga batera umugongo Antivirus yikorewe na Microsoft ubwayo ikayikorera OS (Ahandi turi bukoreshe ijambo "OS" umenye ko tuvuze Operating System) yayo ubwayo nyamara ntibamenye ko arirwo rukingo rwizewe rwo guhashya virus muri mudasobwa yawe. Iyi antivirus ihangana nama software adakenewe ikayavana muri mudasobwa, igashakisha ikitwa virus cyose mu mashini ibinyujije muri scan ikorera Window OS yose, iyi antivirus kandi imanura (download) updates zo kwifashisha mu mutekano ziba zigezwe buri gihe uko ubishatse. Inama naguha rero ni ukumanura iyi antivirus ukajya uyikoresha dore ko ari ubuntu kuri Microsoft website.
    2. Hoza Window yawe ku gihe (Update)
    Uko abagizi ba nabi bo kuri murandasi (Hackers) bagenda bagerageza uburyo bwo kwinjirira Window umunsi ku munsi ni nako Microsoft nayo igenda ikaza umutekano umunsi ku munsi kugirango abkiriya bayo badahemukirwa cyangwa bakangirizwa.
    Guhoza Window OS ku gihe (Update) bivuze iki?
    Ibi bivuze ko wowe niba ufite Window OS wenda waguze cyangwa wamanuye umwaka ushize nuramuka utayishyize ku gihe, hari byinshi uzaba udafite muri OS kandi uwayiguze nyuma yawe abifitemo kabone niyo mwaba mukoresha version ya Windows imwe mwese, kuko Microsoft igenda yongera byinshi muri OS yamaze gusohora ikabishyira ku hanze kugirango uwamaze kugura ya OS akore Update byiyongeremo atagombye kugura inshya, ibi byongerwamo nyuma akenshi nuko baba barabashije kubivumbura nyuma cyangwa se bigaturuka ku kuba wenda barabonye ko hari babashije kubinjirira bakareba aho banyuze (vulnerabilities) bakahakomeza, wowe rero nudashyira OS yawe ku gihe bivuze ko cya cyuho cyari kirimo uyigura cyangwa uyimanura kikirimo biakaba bwaba inzira abagizi banabi banyuzamo virus yo kukwangiriza. Bivuze ko nukora update byabyuho byose bizasibangana kuko uzaba umanuye bimwe byaburagamo ngo OS yawe ibe intarumikwa. Urumva ko rero gushyira Window OS kugihe ari ingenzi cyane. MU gihe waba utazi inzira binyuramo ngo ukore update ya Window OS yawe biroroshye ni ugukanda: Start>Control Panel>System and Security>Windows Update.
    3. Banza usuzumire application yose nshyashya muri virtual machine mbere yo kuyishyira muri mudasobwa nyirizina.
    Virtual Machine ni iki?
    Virtual Machine ni mudasobwa itagaragara ushobora kwiremera wowe ubwawe muri mudasobwa yawe ikamera nkaho ari mudasobwa iri muyindi, ni Operationg System ugenda ugashyira muri mudasobwa yawe utiriwe ukuramo iyambere ahubwo iyo ushyizemo igasa nkaho ibitse imbere mu yari isanzwe, si ngombwa ko kandi Virtual OS igomba kuba ari imwe na OS usanganywe muri mudasobwa kuko ushobora kuba usanzwe ukoresha Windows bisanzwe wajya gushyira OS muri virtual machine ugashyiramo Linux kand zose zigakora.
    Kubera iki ngomba gusuzumira muri Virtual Machine?
    Ni ukuvuga ngo niba wenda wamanuye application ishobora kukwangiriza mudasobwa (urugero yazabye nama virus cyangwa igatuma mudasobwa idakora neza), igihe uhise uyikubita muri mudasobwa yawe bivuze ko izahita yangiza ako kanya, ariko nubanza kuyishyira muri virtual machine uzabanza kareba imikorere yayo nubona yizewe uyishyire muri mudasobwa bisanzwe, nusanga ntabuzirange uyihorere ariko mugihe izaba ari ya yindi yangiza bivuze ko izangiza virtual machine ariko ntigire icyo itwara mudasobwa cyangwa Window OS yawe isanzwe. Ikigereranyo nabaha kugirango dufatanye kubumva neza ni nk'uko waba ugiye gusuzuma niba itara runaka ryaka(rishobora kwaka neza cyangwa rigatwika, itara riragereranywa na ya application nshyashya ugiye kugerageza), ukaba ufite inzu yawe ushaka gukoreshamo iryo tara ariko ukagira impungenge zuko ryagutwikira inzu kuko utaryizeye (inzu hano iragereranywa na mudasobwa yawe isanzwemo OS ya window), aha rero tuzakenera icyo twagereranya n'akazu gato uzasuzumiramo rya tara ariko kakaba imbere muri yanzu (ako kazu karagereranywa na virtual machine), nufata rya tara ukarisuzumira muri ka kazu wenda wabumbye mu byondo rikaka neza uzamenya ko ryatara ryawe ryujuje ubuziranenge, urishyire munzu yawe, ariko niriba ritwaka rizatwika ka zazu gato uhite ubibona ko ritezewe urijugunye mugihe ryari kuba ryagutwikiye inzu nini iyo utaza kuba waryigiye umutwe. Ngako akamaro ka virtual machine.
    4. Browser
    Browser twese tuzi ko ari aya ma application twifashisha tujya kuri murandasi arimo za Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari n'izindi. Nk'uko tubizi akenshi virus zitera za mudasobwa hafi ya zose ziva kuri murandasi bityo rero browser iba ibifitemo uruhare runini kuko ariyo kiraro kikwambutsa kikujyana mw'isi ya murandasi, igihe browser itari kugihe ko ibashe guhanga nibintu bose biba bishaka kuva kuri murandasi biza kwibika muri mudasobwa yawe byiganjemo amavirusi uba ufite ikibazo gikomeye cyo guhura n'akaga. Aha rero bigusaba guhoza browser yawe ku gihe (update), ndetse ukanahindura byinshi muri settings kugirango ukaze umutekano wawe, nk'aho browser uyisaba ko yajya ikuburira igihe ufunguye imbuga cyangwa ugiye kumanura ibintu bitizewe. Browser nakugira inama yo gukoresha cyane ni Chrome kuko uri muzifite umutekano wihagazeho.
    5. Ntugafungure ibintu ubonye byose
    Akenshi abagizi ba nabi bo kuri murandasi bifashisha ama links ameze nkayamamaza ariko agendeye kubinyoma byo kugusha umuntu mu mutego, akenshi bazana amalink agendanye nibyo bazi bikurura imbaga nyamwinshi mw'iyi minsi harimo nkamashusho y'urukozasoni cyangwa bakubwira ko nuhafungura uri butsindire amafaranga y'umurengera. Amalink nkayo ntukayafungure yakwangiriza.
    Hari n'ibindi byinshi kandi twababwira wakwitaho tutavuze muri uru rutonde birimo nko gukoresha browser zizewe, gukoresha Firewall, gushyira antivirus ku gihe (update), gushakisha malware ukoresheje guscana (scan), ibi byose bigaherekezwa no gukora Backup kuko ntawizera umutekano ijana ku rindi, kuburyo igihe cyose wahura n'ikibazo cyo kwangirizwa na virus waba ufite ubwiteganyirize.
    Niba hari icyifuzo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho rero wareba hepfo gato ukadusangiza igitekerezo cyawe ahabugenewe, cyangwa ukatwandikira kuri page yacu ya Facebook ariyo "ktimez.com".

    Uko wakwinjira muri mudasobwa ya mugenzi wawe ugakemura ibibazo ifite ukoresheje iyawe

    Ubu biroroshye ko wakwinjira muyindi mudasobwa ukoreresheje iyawe kandi udakoresheje software n'inwe ahubwo ugakoresha ikoranabuhanga riri muri operating system ya windows iri muri mudasobwa yawe, tukaba tugiye kurebera hamwe uko ibi bikorwa

    Bijya bishoboka ko mudasobwa ya mugenzi wawe ishobora kugira ikibazo kandi icyo kibazo yagize wowe uzi kugikemura kandi bikaba bitakorohera kubona uko umusobanurira uburyo bwo kugikemura cyangwa rimwe na rimwe ari kure yawe kuburyo utabona uko ukimukemurira. umaze kumenya ko mudasobwa ya mugenzi wawe ikoresha operating system ikorwa na kompanyi ya Microsoft urugero  windows 7, windows 8 na windows 10 aha bihita byoroha kuba wakemura ikibazo cyose mudasobwa ya mugenzi wawe yaba ifite ukoresheje uburyo bwo kuyinjiramo utayikozeho (remote access). ushobora guhita utangira kwibaza uko ibi bikorwa ntabwo bigoranye gusa icyo bigusaba ni ukuba mudasobwa yawe iri kuri Network imwe n'iyo ushaka kwinjiramo kugira ngo ubone ububasha bwo kuyinjiramo, kurikira amabwiriza ku murongo y'uko ibi bikorwa

    1. Quick Assist app iyi ni application izana na windows 10 ntabwo bigusaba kuyimanura cyangwa kuyishyira muri mudasobwa yawe ikaba igufasha kuba wakora network connection hagati ya mudasobwa zikoresha operating system imwe, urugero  windows 10 gusa. aho iyo network connection igufasha kuba wakoresha mudasobwa imwe ukagenzura indi bitagusabwe kuzikoresha zose icyarimwe

    2. Ushobora kwibaza aho iyi Quick assist app uyikura muri mudasobwa yawe? kanda start option kuri mudasobwa yawe aho izahita izamura akadirishya karimo izindi option nyinshi uhitemo windows accessories nyuma yaho hazafunguka akandi kadirishya kariho ibindi ariko uhite ukanda ahanditse Quick assist app aho izahita ifunguka muri mudasobwa yawe.

    3. Nyuma yo kuyifungura reba akadirishya gafunguka kagufasha kuba wareka mudasobwa yawe ikagaragarira muzindi mudasobwa cyangwa kuba wayireka izindi mudasobwa zikihuza nayo, ugomba kwemeza kugira ngo ubashe kuba wahuza mudasobwa yawe n'izindi, nyuma yo kwemeza uzahabwa code izata agaciro nyuma y' iminota icumi mu gihe waba utayikoresheje. Iyo code uzayohereza mugenzi wawe mu gihe kitarenze iyo minota icumi kugira ngo mudasobwa zanyu zabashe kujya kuri network imwe.

    4. Kurundi ruhande mugenzi wawe azafungura Quick assist app muri mudasobwa ye nk'uko twabonye inzira bacamo hejuru kugira ngo ifunguke hanyuma yazuzemo za code wamwohereje kugira ngo mubashe kuba mwahuza mudasobwa zanyu.  nyuma yo kuzihuza buri mudasobwa izaba ifite ubushobozi bwo kugenzura indi nk'uko bizaba bigaragara mu kadirishya kafungutse, mu gihe guhuza mudasobwa bitakunze muri iyo minota icumi cyangwa code utayibonye wasubiramo amabwiriza ukongera ukabikora. nyuma yo guhuza mudasobwa zanyu ushobora gutangira ugakemura bimwe mu bibazo mugenzi wawe afite. kuko uba wamaze kugira uburenganzira kuri mudasobwa ye. mu gihe haba hari ikibazo cyangwa ubundi bufasha ushaka kumuha wakwinjira muri mudasobwa ye ukoresheje iyawe nk'uko twabibonye hunyuma ukabimukemurira mu buryo bworoshye.

    by charles in Windows How To

    Waba warigeze wibaza impamvu Local Disk “C” ariyo iza burigihe kuri mudasobwa yawe?

    Ese waba warigeze wibaza impamvu “C” drive burigihe iza bwambere iyo ukoze Format ya mudasobwa yawe? Dore Impamvu! Igihe kinini gishize byari bikomeye ko umu User usanzwe yakwigurira mudasobwa ye bwite kuberako yabaga ihenze cyane, ariko mu isi ya none  mudasobwa ni kimwe mu bikoresho by'ibanze bikenerwa n'abantu benshi, umubare wa za mudasobwa uragenda wiyongera umunsi k’umunsi ugereranyije n'uko abakoze mudasobwa babitekerezaga.

    Burigihe cyose dufunguye Windows Explorer, Tubona Disk Driver Windows iriho(Installed) burigihe iba ira inyuguti ya “C”, Ibindi bikoresho bigendanwa (External Device) nka Hard Disk(HDDs), Memory Cards byo iyo bicometswe kuri mudasobwa bifata andi mazina nka D,E,F,G ……….

    Ese waba warigeze wibaza uti nukubera iki burigihe Drive iriho Operating System ya Windows burigihe iza ifite inyuguti ya “C”, aho yakabaye “A” cyangwa ukaba baribajije uti ese “A” na “B” zo zagiyehe?

    Niba ushaka kumenya igisubizo komeza usome.

    Ushobora kuba uri uwakera(old-fashioned) ndakeka igisubizo ukizi! Niba utazi igisubizo ndakeka utari uwa kera mo gake. Ubundi Local Disk (A) na Local Disk (B) zari zarahawe Floppy Disk Drives, ariko ibihe byarahindutse ubu dukoresha Memory Cards, External Hard Disk ndetse na cloud tukabikaho ibintu bimwe na bimwe. Muri 1960 Floppy Disk Drivers zakoreshwaga nk'ibikoresho bibikwaho ibintu kandi zikaba zarabonekaga mu bwoko bubiri bitewe n'uko zingana 5 ¼ na 3 ½ imwe yafataga inyuguti ya “A” indi igafata inyuguti ya “B”.

    Muri 1980 nibwo Hard Drives yahawe inyuguti ya “C” kubera ko “A” na “B” zarizarahawe Floppy Disk, ariko muri ikigihe Floppy Disk ntizigikoreshwa akaba ari nayo mpamvu zajyanye n’inyuguti zazo arizo “A” na “B”.

    Ndizera ko ubu umenye impamvu inyuguti ya “C” burigihe iza iri kuri Hard Disk yawe iriho Operating System ya Windows kandi ndizerako wakunze ibyo twandika. Kora share usangize n'abandi!

    by crook in Windows

    uburyo bworoshye bwo kugarura file zariwe na virus cyangwa zasibwe kuri flash disk, memory card na external disk

    Bijya bishoboka ko wabika file zawe kuri flash disk, memory card cyangwa external disk nyuma wajya kuzifungura zikanga gufunguka cyangwa rimwe na rimwe ukanazibura kandi utarigeze uzisiba, ushobora kwibaza ikibitera. Ibi bikunda kubaho cyane iyo flash disk, memory card cyangwa external yawe yatatswe n'amavirus aho virus ishobora kubihisha cyangwa ikabirya ukaba wabibura, tukaba tugiye kureba uko wagarura file zawe ukoresheje mudasobwa yawe utifashishije software zabugenewe kuko ushobora guhura n'iki kibazo kandi nta buryo ufite bwo kubona izo software iyi ikaba ari imwe mu nzira zoroshye zo kugarura file zawe. kurikira amabwiriza ku murongo.

    Comeka flash disk, memory card cyangwa external disk yawe kuri mudasobwa:
    1.Kanda button iriho akabendera ka Windows na R icyarimwe (Windows key + R) urabona aho wandika

    2. Andikamo cmd ukande Enter

    3. Nyuma yo kwandikamo cmd ugakanda Enter harafunguka akandi kadirishya wandikemo attrib -h -r -s /s /d x:\*.*, iyi x ihagarariye inyuguti flash disk,memory card cyangwa external yafashe uyicometse kuri mudasobwa yawe, kuko iyo ucometse flash, memory card n'ibindi kuri mudasobwa yawe ihita ibiha inyuguti zitandukanye kugira ngo bikorohere kubitandukanya aha dufate urugero ko flash disk, memory card cyangwa external disk yacu mudasobwa yayihaye inyugita ya G ubwo nitujya kugarura file zacu zariwe cyangwa zanze gufunguka tuzandika attrib -h -r -s /s /d G:\*.*

    Nyuma yo gukurikiza amabwiriza yose nkuko tumaze kuyabona mudasobwa yawe izatangira igarure file zawe zari zariwe na virus aho bizatwara nk'umunota umwe cyangwa indi mike uzategereze wihanganye, nyuma birangiye ushobora kujya kuri flash disk, memory card cyangwa external yawe ukareba niba file zawe zagarutse cyangwa niba izari zanze gufunguka zafunguka. Ibi iyo byanze ntibivuze ko file zawe zibuze burundu kuko hari software zabugenewe ushobora gukoresha ukaba wabigarura nka EaseUS data recovery kuko iyi software ifite n'umwihariko wo kugarura n'ibyaba byasibwe kuri flash disk, memory card cyangwa external disk. gusa iyi ni imwe m uzo twababwira kuko hari software nyishyi zigarura file zabuze cyangwa zatatswe na virus.

    by charles in Windows How To

    Uburyo bumwe bwagufasha kwangiza mudasobwa. (Kwiga tutagamije kwangiza)

    Reka turebe uko twakoresha ubumenyi dufite maze twangize imashini, Ubu tugiye gukora igisa na Virus nubwo atari virus nzima mubyukuri. Ntituri bukore iyo kwangiza bikomeye, kwangiza ni bibi, (iyo kwangiza bikomeye mvuga ni nk'imwe ishobora kugenda muri mudasobwa igashakamo icyitwa umuziki cyose kibitsemo ikagisiba mu kanya nk'ako guhumbya, cyangwa ikareba documents za word na excel, cyangwa ubundi bwoko bwose bwa  files wayitegetse gusiba)

    Twe tugiye kureba uko watesha umutwe nyiri mudasobwa ukora ama folders menshi mu mudasobwa ye bidasabye ko wowe ugenda ukanda za right click -> Create New folder, oya ibyo byadutera umwanya, ahubwo turakora ako nakwita nka ka virus koroheje kuburyo kagenda ibyo dushaka byose kakabidukorera mugihe kitarenze umunota umwe maze ukaba uteje akaduruvayo muri mudasobwa y’abandi

    Muri ubu buryo turakoresha icyo bita batch file, batch files n’iki rero?   Batch file ni uburyo ushobora gukoresha niba ukoresha mudasobwa za windows (kuko batch file ntago zikora muri linux naza macOS) maze ukaba wategeka mudasobwa gukora ibintu byinshi automatically, ni ukuvuga ngo muri batch file wandikamo commands zose wifuza ko mudasobwa iza kugukorera vuba byihuse, wa runninga iyo batch file ikabikora byose vuba, batch file bayi savinga kuri extension ya .bat

    Ubu nibwo buryo tugiye kwifashisha hano dukora ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'amafolder arimo ubusa mu kanya gato, ntago ari ubufindo cyangwa ibitangaza bindi, Batch file ushobora gushyiramo ibihumbi n'ibihumbi by'amacommands ushaka ko imashini ikora, bitewe n’ibyifuzo byawe, gusa twe mugukora ibi twifuje, batch file yacu ntabwo iza kuba irengeje imirongo ine.

    Twagiye rero, fungura Notepad yawe kuko niyo turi bukoreshe twandika izo commands maze tuze no kubi savinga.

    1. Notepad niba warangije kuyifungura umurongo wambere andikamo   "@echo off"
    2. Ukande enter kugira ngo ujye ku murongo ukurikiyeho, maze naho uhandike uti   ":top"   maze ukande enter ujye ku murongo ukurikiyeho
    3.  Andika uti:        "md %random%"     ukande enter
    4. Ku murongo wa kane ari nawo wanyuma andika uti      "Goto top"

    Ni ukuvuga ngo urasigarana notepad yawe iraba yanditsemo gutya:

    @echo off

    :top

    md %random%

    Goto top


    Nsobanuye nihuse izi commands uko ari enye icyo zikora:

    echo off” icyo ikora ni ukubwira programu yacu nifunguka ize gukora bucece muri background, ntifunguke ngo igaragare (echo off),

    umurongo wa kabiri wo uravuga ngo “:top”, aka kantu ka “:” kagufasha gushyiraho position runaka ushobora kuza kugarukaho mu gihe ubyifuza muri programu, imirongo aho yaba igezeho yose, ushobora kongera kugaruka hariya,

    umurongo wa “md %random%”, aha niho igikorwa cyacu kibera ,iriya command ya  md” ikoreshwa mu gukora forlder nshyashya, bimwe navugaga bya Right Click -> create new folder,  ‘md’ ni uburyo bwo kubikora ukoresheje command, naho kariya kajambo ka %random% ko ni izina rya folder uba ugiye gukora, ni ukuvuga ngo urugero wenda wanditse command ivuga iti “md ktimez” uba ukoze folder yitwa ktimez, naho kuba kuriya twashyizeho %random%, nukuvuga ko izajya ifata folder ikayita izina ry'umubare uri random (yihitiyemo itomboje)

    umurongo wa kane ari nawo wanyuma wo ni “Goto top”, ubwiye programu gusubira kuri wa murongo wa top, bimwe navugaga,  ni ukuvuga ngo program yacu izajya ifunguka nimara gukora folder yayise izina riri random, nigera kumurongo wa kane ihite isanga umurongo wa kane uri kuyibwira ngo subira kumurongo wa 2, maze isubire inyuma yongere ikore indi random folder gutyo, gutyo bibe loop idahagarara kugeza igihe iriya random yacu izagera aho ikabura amazina mashya yita folders nshyashya iri gukora.

    Icyanyuma usigaje ni ugu savinga file yawe, uyi savinge kuri desktop uyite izina ushaka gusa icyo utagomba kwibagirwa nuko uyi savinga ifite extension format ya “.bat” nk'uko nabivuze ruguru,  ni ukuvuga ngo niba uyise ktimez wenda, bivuze ko kuri desktop uraza ku yi savinga yitwa “ktimez.bat

    Niba warangije gu saving ntakindi gisigaye usibye gukora ibara maze desktop tukayangiza. Genda ukande double click kuri ya file kugira ngo ifunguke ikore ibyo twayitumye, nyuma ya kanya ko guhumbya desktop yawe urasanga yuzuyeho ama folder utarangiza arimo ubusa, n'ibyari bihari ubibure kuko byabaye byinshi bijyakure, umuntu utabizi ashobora no kugira ngo mudasobwa ye ibintu byisibye hazamo ibindi bidasobanutse.


    dore uko Desktop yanjye yabaye

    Ni gutyo aka virus kacu gato gakora. Twabibutsa ko ibi bigamije kwiyungura ubumenyi atari ku mpamvu zo kwangiza cyangwa guhemukirana. 

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