Linux for hacker:Igice cya kabiri

Mu gice cyambere, twarebeye hamwe ibyerekeye File system, cd cyangwa guhindura directory wakoreragamo n’ibindi byose by'ibanze.

Muburyo bwinshi uburyo bw'ibanze kugira ngo ubashe kuba umu white hat Hacker nuko ugomba kwimenyereza gukoresha command line interface(CLI) cyane.

Aka gace tugiye kurebera hamwe uko Wabasha gukoresha commands n’ibindi bikenerwa mu rugendo rwa hacking.

Akenshi na kenshi aba hacker bagitangira(beginners) baba bibaza uburyo babonamo ibintu nk'ama command amwe n'amwe kubera ko abenshi baba bamaze igihe kinini bikoreshereza windows Operating System cyangwa OSX kugira ngo babashe kubona commands zikunze gukoreshwa muri Hackings bikabagora.

Ushobora kuba wibaza uti ese ni gute namenya aho ibyo nshaka gukoresha byose biherereye ni ukuvuga ko ushobora kwifashisha command line ukaba wabona aho ama command amwe n'amwe abitse urugero nka directory, binaries, config files, n'ibindi aho byaba biherereye.

Uyu munsi rero tugiye kurebera hamwe uko twakoresha Terminal (command line ) kugira ngo turebe ko twabona aho andi ma commands abitse. Tudatinze mu magambo rero reka dutangirire kuri command yitwa Locate.

1. Locate

Linux ifite uburyo bwinshi ushobora gukoresha kugira ngo ubashe kuba wabona porogaramu runaka, commande, ama files n’ibindi wifashishije uburyo bworoshye bwa command line.

Uburyo bwa mbere bukunze gukoreshwa cyangwa wakoresha ni ugukoresha command yitwa Locate.

Locate ikoreshwa ikurikiranye n’ijambo ushaka gushaka (keyword) icyo iyi command ikora ibasha gushakisha muri file system ishakamo iryo jambo uyihaye aho riherereye.

Uko ikoreshwa ufungura terminal nk'uko twabibonye mu gice cyambere.

Andika locate ukurikizeho ijambo cyangwa command ushaka kumenya aho riherereye ubundi ukande Enter.


2. whereis

Niba tuzi neza icyo turigushaka ko ari binary (bihuye na executable muri window Os), Linux ifite commands zihariye ushobora gukoresha muri ayo ma commande harimo  whereis.

Whereis command ntabwo izakuzanira gusa aho binary ushaka iherereye ahubwo izanakwereka uko wayikoresha ikuzanira man page twabonye mu gace kambere.

1. kali>whereis aircrack-ng

2. Kali>whereis msfconsole

Aha izakwereka aho msfconsole Iherereye: /usr/bin/msfconsole /usr/share/man/man1/msfconsole.1.gz


Nk'uko ubibona kuri iyi foto iri haruguru  dukoresheje whereis  twabonya aho binary yitwa aircrack-ng iherereye, ariko aha nuyikoresha urimo gushaka document runaka ntabwo uzabasha kuyibona kubera ko ikoreshwa mu gushaka ama binaries n'andi ma command gusa.

3. which

Which yo irihariye kuko yo yerekana aho commande runaka iherereye.

1. Kali>which aircrack-ng 

2. Kali>which msfconsole



4. FIND

FIND ni command ikunze gukoreshwa cyane kubera uburyo  yoroshya uburyo umuntu ashaka ibintu. Commande ya find ifite ubushobozi bwo gushaka file cyangwa binary muri directory runaka ikanashakisha ayo ma file cyangwa ama binaries yifashishije amwe mu ma parameters harimo nk'izina rya file n’ibindi. Ibi bikurikira nibyo ishobora kukwereka.

1. Igihe yaba yarakorewe (created) cyangwa yaba yarahinduriwe(modified)

2. Nyirayo

3. Permission

4. Ingano yiyo file cyangwa folder(size)

5. Group

Uburyo wakoresha find ni ubu:

Andika Find <ukurikizeho directory ushaka ko ishakiramo> <options> <expression>

Niba ushaka nko gushaka file ibitse kuri root (/)  ifite izina rya apache2 wakoresha iyi commmand:

1. Kali>find / -type  f -name apache2

2. kali>find /root/Desktop f –name izina rya file ushaka

/:ni directory iri bushakiremo
Ushobora gusimbuza / n'ahandi hantu ushaka gushakira. Urugero, ushobora gushyiraho usr,share,lib.

-type: ni type ya file aha ni ukugaragaza ko -f bivuzeko ari file isanzwe

-name: irashakisha igendeye ku izina apache2 ni ukuvuga izina ishaka.



Nk'uko ubibona command ya find yatangiriye aho file system itangirira igenda ishakisha muri buri directory yose ishakamo ijambo apache2 aho riherereye, ikaba yabonye ahantu henshi hari apache2, bikaba byatuma iyi commande igenda gake ni ukuvuga ko kubona icyo dushaka kubera ko find igenda ishakisha muri buri directory.

Reka turebe igihe tuzaba dushaka apache2 iherereye muri /etc directory.

Kuri ubu buryo tuzatangira gushaka duhereye kuri /etc directory. Icyo find izakora izareba muri iyo directory nirangiza ihite iduha igisubizo kijyanye n'ibyo twasabye.

Kali>find /etc -type  f -name apache2


Nk'uko ubibona haruguru ubu nibwo buryo bwihuse kurusha ubwabanje aha yerekana aho apache2 iri n'ama subdirectory iherereyemo muri /etc directory. find aho itandukaniye n'andi macommand twabonye haruguru nka Locate ,Whereis yo ni uko itwereka neza aho file dushaka iherereye mu buryo bwihuse.

Mugihe muri folder urimo gushakiramo harimo andi ma files afite izina rijya gusa n'iryo ushaka cyangwa ushaka kureba ama files yose yifitemo izina ushaka wakoresha iyi commande ikurikira:

Kali>find /etc -type  f -name ‘apache2.*’


5. grep

Mu gihe urimo gukoresha command line ushobora gushaka keyword runaka. Commande ya grep yo ni filter kugira ngo ishake keyword runaka. Ikoreshwa rimwe na rimwe iyo output yatanzwe na command runaka ushaka kuyishyira muyindi commande ibyo bita (piping) ushobora guhita wibaza uti ese piping ni iki? piping ni uburyo ufata output ya command runaka ukaba wayikoresha muyindi command. Kugira ngo dukore piping twifashisha | ako karongo nk'urugero nshobora kuba nshaka kureba process zirimo ku running nkoresheje commande ya ps ikurikiwe na aux switch:

Uko yandikwa: kali >ps aux


Uko ubibona haruguru iyi commande impa ama services arimo ku running muri system. None se mugihe ushaka kureba service imwe irimo ku running uyikuye muri aya ma services arimo ku running wakora iki?

Ushobora kwifashisha piping ufata output wabonye wufashishije ps aux ukayijyana muri grep Wenda nshaka kurebako apache2 services irimo gukora(running).

Nakwandika kali>ps aux | grep apache2

Iyi commande yerekana ama services arimo ku running yarangiza ikohereza output kuri grep aho grep izashakamo keyword wabashije kuyiha ariyo apache2 hano twakoresheje yarangiza ikaduha output.


Uko ubibona haruguru grep yabashije gukora filter ikuramo keyword twayihaye iba ariyo itwereka yonyine ikaba idufasha mu kudatakaza igihe burigihe dukora scan y'ama services arimo kurunning.

Niba ushaka kuba white hat hacker cyangwa ufite mugenzi wawe ubishaka kora share.

Hari ikibazo cyangwa igitekerezo ushaka kutugezaho watwandikira ahagenewe ibitekerezo cyangwa kuri page yacu ya facebook ktimez.com tukabasha kugufasha.

by crook in Dev Ops

Database Zikoreshwa Cyane Kurusha Izindi

imbuga za internet, amaprogramu ya mudasobwa,  applications dukoresha muri telephone n'ibindi ntarondoye bikoresha ibyo twita database mu kubika data (amakuru yibyo bikoresha), cyangwa information, kandi izi data zikaba zaboneka igihe zikenerewe gukoreshwa, nk'urugero niba warafunguje konti kw'Irembo, ushobora kuba warinjijemo izina ryawe, aho utuye (umurenge, akarere, intara), numero yawe y'irangamuntu n'ibindi byinshi,  izi data cyangwa information  zawe winjijemo rero kugirango bazibike nigihe cyose uzagarukira ntibazongere kuzikubaza, ngo wongere ubyinjijzemo, Kubibika rero ntakundi bakoresha database mukubika izi data mu gihe kirekire kandi zikazajya zikoreshwa igihe zikenewe.  

Database nubwo hafi ya zose zikora akazi kamwe ko kubika data, ntizibikora kimwe, kandi  zikagira na byinshi zitandukaniraho, Kwisi ubu hari database zigera hafi muri 400, inyinshi kuzikoresha ni ubuntu, nubwo harimo nizo gukoresha bisaba ko uzigura, twavuga nka Oracle Database.

hano tugiye kuvuga Database 5 za mbere zikoreshwa cyane ubungubu, gusa uko ibihe bizagenda bisimburana ninako zizagenda zisimburanwa mu gukoreshwa.


1. Oracle Database: ikaba ari iya company bita Oracle, iyi ngiyi nubwo nigeze kubikomozaho kuyikoresha ntago ari ubuntu, bisaba ko wishyura. gusa ntibiyigabanyiriza kuba ubu ari iyambere nubwo uyu mwanya ihora iwurwanira nizikurikiraho, 

2. MySQL: nkeka ko abanyarwanda benshi biga ibintu bijyanye na computer ariyo bamenye mbere, ikaba ikunzwe cyane kuko yo ni ubuntu kuyikoresha nta kiguzi utanga, bikongeraho ko yagiye inakoreshwa n'imbuga nyinshi zitandukanye kandi zizwi navugamo nka Facebook, na Wikipedia

Icyitonderwa: Akenshi izi mbuga zimaze gukomera nka twitter cyangwa wikipedia tuvuze hano ruguru. inyinshi ntago ziba zikoresha database imwe, kuko baba bafite ibintu byinshi bakora nubwo twe tuba tuzi ngo wenda ni twitter gusa yo gu tweettinga, baba bafite n'izindi services nyinshi bakora, niyo mpamvu akenshi utazajya usanga bakoresha database imwe yonyine, cyangwa ugasanga nyuma y'igihe runaka babonye ko database bakoresheje itagihuje n'ubushobozi bwibyo bashaka gukora bakaba bahindura bagakoresha indi, nkurugero rwa hafi facebook ikoresha nindi database yitwa HIVE nindi bita Cassandra nizindi nyinshi utavamo

3. Microsoft SQL Server:  utayitiranya na mysql nubwo zifite ibyo zihuriyeho ziratandukanye, iyi database ikaba ari iya Microsoft,  zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye ziyikoresha navugamo imbuga za microsoft,  nka Bing nizindi,

4. PostgreSQL: uracyabonamo ijambo SQL rikunda kugaruka cyane, nuko izi zose zihurira ku kintu kimwe cyuko zibika data muma table, iyi postgresql  nayo kuyikoresha nta kiguzi, ikaba nayo ikunzwe cyane. zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye ziyikoresha zavuga nka Yahoo 

5. MongoDB. iyi ikaba ihabanye nizabanje zose kuko yo ntikoresha tables ibika ibintu,  ikaba iri mu bwoko bwa databases bwita "NoSql Database" hamwe na za cassandra navuze ruguru, zimwe mu mbuga zikomeye zikoresha MongoDB wahera kuri iyi Ktimez.com uri gusomaho iyi nkuru, tukavugamo Nokia na Adobe


izindi uko zikurikirana kugeza kuya 10, harimo

6. DB2

7. Microsoft Access (akenshi iyi abantu biga za excel na word  barayiga) 

8. Cassandra

9. Redis

10. ElasticSearch

niya 11 izwi cyane bita SQLite ikaba ikoreshwa cyane muri application za android, niba ufite muri telephone yawe Application ya android kandi ibika amakuru, menya ko inyinyi zikoresha SQLite

ushaka kureba urutonde uko rwifashe nyuma yigihe wakanda aha


Programming Languages zikunzwe kandi zakoreshejwe cyane muri 2017.

Mbere na mbere Programming languages ni indimi zifashishwa mu gukora amaporogaramu. Iyo porogaramu zikorwa, hifashishwa indimi zitandukanye, urugero ni nku'ko wavuga ko  mu gukora imyenda hakoreshwa imashini zitandukanye. Izo ndimi ziba zihariye kandi zinatandukanye gusa icyo zihuriraho ni uko zose zikora amaporogaramu.

Biragoye cyane kuba umuhanga(expert) muri buri rurimi(programming language) rukoreshwa muri programming kandi uko bwira nuko bucya hagenda havuka izindi ndimi nyinshi. Ushobora kwibaza kugiti cyawe  uti: ni izihe ndimi ziri kugoreshwa cyane muri iyi minsi? Nizihe ndimi aba programmers bari kwiga cyane muri iyi minsi? Cyangwa se ni izihe ndimi  ziri gukoreshwa cyane ku isoko ry'umurimo?

Mu gusubiza ibi bibazo twakoze icyegeranyo twifashishije zimwe mu mbuga aba programmers bakoresh nka  www.github.com (urubuga rufasha aba programmers gukora ama projects yabo bari ahantu hatandukanye ndetse n'ibindi byinshi), na www.stackoverflow.com (urubuga rukoreshwa naba programmers mukabaza ibibazo bijyanye na programming ndetse n'ibibazo bahura nabyo).

Pragramming languages zikoreshwa cyane

Mu kumenya indimi zikoreshwa cyane hano twifashishije urubuga rwa Github aho twarebye kuri github project pushes(uburyo bakoresha bashyira ama projects kuri github). Izo ni programming languages 20 zambere.


Kandi twongeye kureba indimi ziri active  kuri github (most active repository in github).


Pragramming languages zikenewe ku isoko

Kumenya programming language zikoreshwa cyane ni byiza, gusa niba uri umu programmer cyangwa umu developer mu yandi magambo birakwiye ko wamenya na programming languages zikenewe ku isoko ry'umurimo cyangwa abakoresha benshi bakeneye.  Twarebye muri programming languages 20 zambere zikoreshwa cyane dukuramo zimwe muri zo abakoresha baba bakeneye cyangwa se zikenewe ku isoko.



 

  • C programming language niyo ishakishwa cyane ikaba n'iya 2 kuri github commits(ni process yo kubika ibyahinduwe muri project).
  • JavaScript imaze igihe kirekire mu ruhando rwazo uhereye mumwaka 1995 nubwo atariyo ishaje cyane gusa ni programming language ikomeje gutera imbere no kwerekana ko mu myaka iri kuza izakomeza gukomera, nk'uko tubikesha www.fossbytes.com aho bavugako yiyongereyeho 97% mu mwaka wa 2016 aho bakanavuga ko ari"High level Dynamic" kandi muri iyi minsi ikaba iri guhabwa akabyiniro ka "language of the web".
  • Java programming language nirwo rwa 2 muzikoreshwa cyane ikaba iri munsi ho 1.1millions pushes kuri JavaScript kuri Github gusa tugendeye ku bundi bushakashatsi bwa Github (PYPL) JAVA niyo programming language ikunzwe n'abantu benshi  ku isi (most popular).
  • Python nayo ikaba iri kuri izo ntonde kandi tugendeye kuri Github PYPL Python niyo Programming language iri gukura cyane kuko mumyaka 5 ishize yiyongereyeho 7.6% ari nayo myaka PHP yatakaje 4.9%.
  • kandi birakwiye gushyira ijisho kuri R(Rust) na Go kuko zombi ni iza 4 mu gushakishwa cyane ndentse na 22 millions za github commits kandi tugendeye ku bushakashatsi bwa Stackoverflow, Go iri muri language zikunzwe n'aba developer kandi muri Amerika hakaba hari imyanya ibarirwa 1600 ihabwa aba developer ba Go.


Mugusoza niba uri umu programmer cyangwa umu developer ushaka kwiga programming language nshashya muri 2017 dore urutonde dukesha ubushakashasti  bwa Usersnaps.

  • JavaScript
  • Java
  • Python
  • Elixir
  • Rust
  • Go
  • TypeScript
  • PHP
  • Ruby on Rails
  • C#
  • Swift

by kush in Web Dev Dev Ops

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